Early last month NIH officials described how the policy will be implemented. As of April 7, 2008, all articles arising from NIH funds must be submitted to PubMed Central upon acceptance for publication. Since 2005 the policy has raised concerns that two versions of a research study will be available to the public—the uncopyedited manuscript supplied by the author and the published version of the same manuscript. To allay these concerns, many biomedical journals will submit articles directly to PubMed Central on behalf of authors, and a list is provided on the NIH Web site (publicaccess.nih.gov/plans). The provision signed by the President requires that NIH implement the public-access policy "in a manner consistent with copyright law." The Association of American Publishers has warned that it will challenge the provision, stating that a mandatory policy "undermines" publishers' copyright and is "inconsistent with" U.S. laws.