0
Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

1
Article   |    
Service Utilization and Event Reaction Patterns Among Children Who Received Project Liberty Counseling Services
Nancy H. Covell, Ph.D.; George Allen, Ph.D.; Susan M. Essock, Ph.D.; Elizabeth A. Pease, M.S., R.N.; Chip J. Felton, M.S.W.; Carol B. Lanzara, J.D., M.S.; Sheila A. Donahue, M.A.
Psychiatric Services 2006; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.57.9.1277

Objectives: This study examined service utilization and event reaction patterns among children who used crisis counseling services provided under Project Liberty for 27 months after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Methods: The authors analyzed logs of 681,318 service encounters submitted by Project Liberty counselors, paying particular attention to demographic characteristics and reported event reactions. Results: Nine percent of service recipients reached by community-based Project Liberty providers were children, whereas census data for the 15 counties and boroughs served by Project Liberty indicated that children constituted 25 percent of the population. Service use as a function of race or ethnicity and of gender was consistent with census data. Similar to findings for adults, the most common emotional event reactions reported for children were experiencing sadness and tearfulness, being anxious and fearful, having difficulty concentrating, experiencing irritability and anger, having intrusive thoughts or images, and having difficulty sleeping. Behavioral event reactions listed on service logs suggested that older children (12 to 17 years) were more likely to use drugs whereas elementary school-age children were more likely to display signs of anxiety, isolation and withdrawal, and difficulties with concentration and memory. Conclusions: Sensitivity to differences in the event reaction patterns shown by younger and older children may be useful in refining treatments to help reduce the psychological impact of children's trauma after terrorist incidents. (Psychiatric Services 57:1277-1282, 2006)

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Dr. Covell and Dr. Essock are affiliated with the Department of Psychiatry, Division of Health Services Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City. Dr. Essock is also with the Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, the Bronx. Dr. Allen is with the Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs. Ms. Pease, Mr. Felton, Ms. Lanzara, and Ms. Donahue are with the Center for Information Technology and Evaluation Research, New York State Office of Mental Health, Albany. Send correspondence to Dr. Essock, Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1230, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029-6574 (e-mail: susan.essock@mssm.edu). This report from Project Liberty is part of a special issue of Psychiatric Services commemorating the five-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001, attacks. Susan M. Essock, Ph.D., served as guest editor.

By its very nature, terrorism is designed to create social chaos and a psychological climate of fear and intimidation (1). Even when terrorist activities are aimed at adults, the physical and mental well-being of children invariably is negatively affected (2). Children affected by terrorism generally have been found to manifest the same broad symptoms of traumatic stress as adults (2). Children also exhibit these symptoms of traumatic stress for six or more months after a traumatic event (3,4), and these symptoms vary according to the children's age and cognitive abilities (5,6). Accurate assessment of reactions to trauma among children as a prelude to rapid provision of therapeutic intervention (7) is particularly important.

The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, created widespread emotional distress among both adults and children. In a survey of 434 parents conducted two months after the attacks, parents reported that 18 percent of their children had severe or very severe stress reactions and 27 percent of their children exhibited problems in their daily functioning (8). A substantial number of New York City children continued to have elevated rates of psychiatric disorders for up to six months after the attacks. A needs assessment survey of 8,236 public schoolchildren estimated that 28.6 percent of fourth through 12th graders experienced at least one mental health problem serious enough to require intervention six months after September 11, 2001 (3). Children's symptom patterns also were found to vary as a function of age, gender, and race or ethnicity. Younger children, girls, and non-Caucasian children were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety-related disorders. Family exposure to the attacks was associated with a probable mental disorder to a larger degree than personal exposure (3).

Surveys found low rates of service utilization for children who experienced symptoms after the World Trade Center attacks. Two phone surveys of 434 and 112 parents, respectively, reported that 10 percent (8) and 22 percent (9) of symptomatic children received treatment; the school-based needs assessment (3) reported that only 33 percent of children who met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had sought counseling services. According to survey results, such services were more likely to have been accessed by children whose parents reported current PTSD (9), those who had lost a relative or friend in the attacks, those who had received previous counseling, and those who manifested severe PTSD (8). Survey information is very helpful in estimating population needs and service utilization after a disaster. However, it is also important to examine trends in service use by employing actual service utilization data to provide disaster mental health community planners, providers, researchers, and program managers with information to enhance opportunities for disaster preparedness and response.

Project Liberty, a federally funded program designed to respond to mental health needs after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, provided large-scale, free, disaster-related outreach, individual and group counseling, psychoeducation, and referral services to both adults and children residing in the greater New York City metropolitan area (10). In order to be reimbursed for services, Project Liberty providers were required to complete service encounter logs, thus providing a source of data for examining demographic characteristics and event reaction profiles of clients served.

This study used data from Project Liberty to examine the characteristics of service utilization among children served, compare service utilization by children and adults who received individual or family counseling services, examine service utilization of children in relation to census data, and examine children's reactions to the World Trade Center disaster.

Under the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) funding conditions, all services provided under Project Liberty were anonymous. All of the 177 community-based Project Liberty service providers served both adults and children. Provider agencies included large and small mental health agencies, consumer-run organizations, faith-based social service agencies, and agencies with experience serving particular ethnic, cultural, or racial groups. Providers completed 753,015 service logs indicating date and location of service (for example, school or place of employment), borough or county where service was received, and risk category (for example, family of a missing or deceased person, persons who were injured in attack, or fire, police, or rescue personnel).

These service logs included both group education and individual (including family) counseling services provided from Project Liberty's inception through December 31, 2003. Individual counseling service logs included information about whether the contact was a first or follow-up visit, demographic information (client age, gender, preferred language, and race or ethnicity), and ratings of the presence of up to 31 behavioral, emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the events that the recipient identified as a reaction that he or she was experiencing or that the crisis counselor observed during that day's session. The 31 event reactions were adapted by Project Liberty from those included in the data management toolkit developed for the FEMA-funded disaster mental health crisis counseling program by the federal Center for Mental Health Services (11). Data from the separate Project Liberty program administered by the New York City Department of Education from January 2003 to December 2004 were not included in the analyses reported here; rather, this article focuses on the services delivered by community-based agencies, including services that community-based agencies provided in school settings.

The analyses focused on the logs of 681,318 service encounters (99 percent of the 687,848 individual crisis counseling sessions) for individual counseling sessions where counselors coded age. Visit logs were not grouped within each provider for these analyses. The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Institutional Review Board found this secondary analysis of anonymous data to be exempt from review.

The study first examined characteristics of service utilization by children, and chi square analyses were applied to examine whether event reactions for adults differed from those for children and whether younger and older children who received services differed in terms of demographic characteristics, event reactions, and possible major depressive disorder or PTSD (12). Logs were linked to census statistics by county (date of census information April 1, 2000), and analyses used chi square goodness-of-fit tests to examine whether the observed rates of children's service use and of children's race or ethnicity differed from what would be expected on the basis of census data. This analysis permitted determination of whether Project Liberty services were being accessed by children in representative proportion to their presence in the population.

Throughout, because of the very large number of service logs, group differences were nearly always significant, even when they differed by just a few percentage points. Hence, this report notes differences that were both statistically significant (p<.05) and programmatically meaningful (defined as having a difference between groups of 10 percent or greater, a difference large enough to suggest changes in service delivery to target underserved populations).

To examine whether providers influenced the likelihood of receiving follow-up visits, for each provider, the proportion of first visits versus follow-up visits and the proportion of first visits provided to children compared with adults were calculated. These proportions were then correlated. Chi square statistics were then applied to determine whether follow-up visits were more likely in school settings. After finding that significantly more follow-up visits occurred in school settings, we used hierarchical logistic regressions to determine whether children were more likely to receive a follow-up visit after the analyses controlled for location of service (school versus other). The first logistic regression model included one independent measure, location of service. The second logistic regression model included two independent measures, location of service and whether the participant was a child or an adult.

Of 681,318 individual service logs for first and follow-up visits, 105,244 (15 percent) were for services provided to children either individually or in family counseling. Because services were provided anonymously, it was not possible to determine how many different children had follow-up visits and, among those with follow-up visits, how many each child had. When only first visits were examined, 39,962 of 463,277 service logs (9 percent) were for services provided to children. As shown in Table 1, children received first-time visits most frequently from community providers in schools (41 percent), and most first visits with children (69 percent) were provided to those aged 12 to 17 years.

Chi square goodness-of-fit tests indicated that, across all areas served by Project Liberty, children constituted a smaller proportion of individual counseling service logs than their representation in the population. Compared with adults, significantly fewer first-visit service logs were for children (regardless of whether children six years of age or younger were included or excluded), given the census data (most p values <.001 for chi square goodness-of-fit comparisons for children versus adults). However, among those served, the proportions of gender and race or ethnicity were generally consistent with what would have been expected on the basis of the census data.

Comparisons of preschool, grade school, and older children who received individual counseling services showed no between-group differences for gender, for whether services were received in English or another language, or for whether the child received a referral for professional mental health services. However, preschool children served were more likely to be Caucasian (31 percent compared with 20 percent of grade school children and 17 percent of older children) and less likely to be African American (22 percent compared with 33 percent of grade school children and 35 percent of older children) (χ2=244, df=6, p<.001).

As shown in Table 2, on the basis of first-visit service logs, children and adults who received individual counseling services did not differ meaningfully from each other in terms of gender, preferred language, or likelihood of referral for professional mental health services. However, compared with the adults, significantly more of the children served were Hispanic and significantly fewer were Caucasian.

Compared with the proportion of adults (90 percent) among the service logs for first visits, a significantly smaller proportion of adults (70 percent) was seen among the service logs for follow-up visits (χ2=51,570, df=1, p<.001). Providers who devoted a higher proportion of first visits to children were also more likely to offer proportionately more follow-up visits overall (r=-.21, p<.005). Significantly more follow-up visits with both children and adults (60,341 visits, or 28 percent) than first visits with both children and adults (36,862 visits, 8 percent) occurred in school settings (χ2=47,131, df=1, p<.001). Proportionally more of these follow-up visits in school settings were provided to children, than to adults (49,710 follow-up visits for children, or 76 percent, compared with 10,529 follow-up visits for adults, or 7 percent; χ2=109,494, df=1, p<.001).

Results of logistic regression suggest that adults were .36 times less likely than children to receive a follow-up visit (χ2=14,511, df=1, p<.001), even after the analyses controlled for whether the follow-up visit was provided in a school setting (those who received services in school settings were 2.5 times more likely to receive a follow-up visit; χ2=10,277, df=1, p<.001).

Table 3 summarizes the percentage of adults and children within each age group whose counselors reported specific event reactions, categorized as behavioral, emotional, physical, and cognitive. Children were less likely than adults to report at least one physical event reaction (48 percent compared with 61 percent; χ2=2,700, df=1, p<.001). No significant differences were found between children and adults for the emotional, behavioral, or cognitive reaction categories. As illustrated in Table 3, Project Liberty providers reported that the most common reactions among children (20 percent or greater) were similar to the most common reactions among adults. Additionally, the percentage of individuals with possible major depressive disorder or possible PTSD increased with age (χ2=346, df=5, p<.001 for major depressive disorder and χ2=868, df=5, p<.001 for PTSD).

Children represented 9 percent of those who received individual counseling services from community-based agencies participating in Project Liberty between program inception and December 2003, when service delivery by these agencies ceased. Project Liberty also funded additional counseling and other services to New York City schoolchildren between January 2003 and December 2004 that were organized through the New York City Department of Education. Although data processing delays precluded the inclusion of detailed data from the Department of Education's service logs in these analyses, we know that an additional 36,337 children received individual crisis counseling during this later phase of Project Liberty. With these additional services included, 20 percent of Project Liberty's total service logs for individual (including family) counseling were provided to children, which is comparable to the census information identifying 25 percent of New York City's population as children. Community-based Project Liberty providers reached children of both genders and varying races or ethnicities in expected proportions, given the census statistics.

The relative frequencies of traumatic stress reactions recorded for these children paralleled what Project Liberty counselors recorded for the adults they served. Sadness, tearfulness, fear, anxiety, concentration difficulties, anger, irritability, intrusive thoughts and images, and difficulty sleeping were the most common event reactions reported for children as well as adults in this and other samples (2,13).

There were, however, some important differences in event reactions between younger and older children. Compared with reports about older children (12 to 17 years), counselors reported that elementary school-age children exhibited relatively more isolation and withdrawal, anxious and fearful reactions, and concentration difficulties. Older children were more similar to adults and more likely than younger children to exhibit several avoidance and "numbing" reactions across domains and to abuse substances. Additionally, the incidence of possible major depressive disorder and PTSD appeared to increase with age. These outcomes are consistent with literature indicating that younger children are less likely to manifest psychic numbing (5) or avoidance symptoms associated with PTSD (6).

Given the growing body of evidence linking childhood trauma to a large number of later-life psychological (13,14,15) and physical (16,17,18) disorders, accurate assessment of vulnerability to traumatic stress is critical. Cognitive-behavioral interventions are proving effective in ameliorating the effects of traumatic stress on children (19,20,21,22,23,24). These interventions typically meld four basic components: psychoeducation about trauma, sustained exposure to trauma related cues or memories, coping skills to manage fearfulness, and parent training (7). Little is known, however, about how to best match varying doses of these components to different age categories (7,22). Although accurate assessment is central to identifying children in need of early intervention (25), it is also important in helping to develop specific age-relevant interventions.

This investigation has several limitations. Race and ethnicity were coded as a single variable on the basis of observation by Project Liberty service providers, rather than from the service recipient's self-assessment. Also, because services were provided anonymously, it was not possible to determine how many different children had follow-up visits or what the average number of follow-up visits was for any given child.

Information from Project Liberty service logs indicates that by January 2003 community-based agencies succeeded in providing nearly 40,000 children with individual counseling both within the schools and in other community settings. Compared with adults, children were more likely to participate in more than one counseling session. A majority of follow-up sessions were provided in the schools. However, after the analyses controlled for setting, children were still more likely than adults to receive follow-up services. Event reaction patterns differed as a function of children's age. Elementary school-age children manifested relatively more isolation and withdrawal, anxious and fearful reactions, and concentration difficulties than older children. Knowledge of the reaction patterns shown by younger and older children may be useful in refining treatments to help reduce the psychological impact of children's trauma after terrorist incidents and other disasters.

This evaluation was funded by grant FEMA-1391-DR-NY (titled "Project Liberty: Crisis Counseling Assistance and Training Program") to New York State from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The Center for Mental Health Services of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration administered the grant. The authors express their appreciation to Katherine M. Shear, M.D.

Joshi PT, O'Donnell DA: Consequences of child exposure to war and terrorism. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 6:275-292, 2003
 
Fremont WP: Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43:381-392, 2004
 
Hoven CW, Duarte CS, Lucas CP, et al: Psychopathology among New York City public school children 6 months after September 11. Archives of General Psychiatry 62:545-552, 2005
 
Pfefferbaum B, Gurwitch RH, McDonald NB, et al: Posttraumatic stress among young children after the death of a friend or acquaintance in a terrorist bombing. Psychiatric Services 51:386-388, 2000
 
Ronen T: Difficulties in assessing traumatic reactions in children. Journal of Loss and Trauma 7:87-106, 2002
 
Scheeringa MS, Wright MJ, Hunt JP, et al: Factors affecting the diagnosis and prediction of PTSD symptomatology in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry 163:644-651, 2006
 
Carr A: Interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatric Rehabilitation 7:231-244, 2004
 
Fairbrother G, Stuber J, Galea S, et al: Unmet need for counseling services by children in New York City after the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center: implications for pediatricians. Pediatrics 113:1367-1374, 2004
 
Stuber J, Fairbrother G, Galea S, et al: Determinants of counseling for children in Manhattan after the September 11 attacks. Psychiatric Services 53:815-822, 2002
 
Felton C: Project Liberty: a public health response to New Yorkers' mental health needs arising from the World Trade Center terrorist attacks. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 79:429-433, 2002
 
Data Management Toolkit Draft. Rockville, Md, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, 2001
 
Jackson CT, Allen G, Essock SM, et al: Clusters of event reactions among recipients of Project Liberty mental health counseling. Psychiatric Services 57:1271-1276, 2006
 
Terr LC, Bloch DA, Michael BA, et al: Children's symptoms in the wake of Challenger: a field study of distant-traumatic effects and an outline of related conditions. American Journal of Psychiatry 156:1536-1544, 1999
 
Lubit R, Rovine D, Defrancisci L, et al: Impact of trauma on children. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 9:128-138, 2003
 
Goenjian AK, Stenibert AM, Najarian LM, et al: Prospective study of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive reactions after earthquake and political violence. American Journal of Psychiatry 157:911-916, 2000
 
Mulvihill D: The health impact of childhood trauma: an interdisciplinary review 1997-2003. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 28:115-136, 2005
 
Gander ML, von Kanel R: Myocardial infarction and post-traumatic stress disorder: frequency, outcome, and atherosclerotic mechanism. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 13:165-172, 2006
 
Seng JS, Clark MKK, McCarthy AM, et al: PTSD and physical comorbidity among women receiving Medicaid: results for service-use data. Journal of Traumatic Stress 19:45-56, 2006
 
Stein BD, Jaycox LH, Kataoka SH, et al: A mental health intervention for schoolchildren exposed to violence: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:603-611, 2003
 
Goenjian AK, Karayan I, Pynoos RS, et al: Outcome of psychotherapy among early adolescents after trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:536-542
 
Cohen JA, Berlliner L, Mannarino AO: Treating traumatized children: a research review and synthesis. Trauma Violence and Abuse 1:29-46, 2000
 
Ruggiero K, Morris TL, Scotti JR: Treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder: current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 8:210-227, 2001
 
Goenjian AK, Walling D, Steinberg AM, et al: A prospective study of posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions among treated and untreated adolescents 5 years after a catastrophic disaster. American Journal of Psychiatry 162:2302-2308, 2005
 
Chemtob CM, Nakashima J, Carlson JG: Brief treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related post-traumatic stress disorder: a field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology 58:99-112, 2002
 
Balaban V: Psychological assessment of children in disasters and emergencies. Disasters 30:178-198, 2006
 
 
Table 1  First-time crisis counseling services provided by Project Liberty to 39,962 children, by service locations and age group
 
Table 2  Characteristics of children and adults who received first-time individual or family counseling from Project Libertya

a Not all data were available for all Project Liberty service logs.

 
Table 3  Percentage of individuals in each age category reported as exhibiting event reactions at first-time crisis counseling service from Project Liberty
Table 1  First-time crisis counseling services provided by Project Liberty to 39,962 children, by service locations and age group
Table 2  Characteristics of children and adults who received first-time individual or family counseling from Project Libertya

a Not all data were available for all Project Liberty service logs.

Table 3  Percentage of individuals in each age category reported as exhibiting event reactions at first-time crisis counseling service from Project Liberty
+

References

Joshi PT, O'Donnell DA: Consequences of child exposure to war and terrorism. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 6:275-292, 2003
 
Fremont WP: Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43:381-392, 2004
 
Hoven CW, Duarte CS, Lucas CP, et al: Psychopathology among New York City public school children 6 months after September 11. Archives of General Psychiatry 62:545-552, 2005
 
Pfefferbaum B, Gurwitch RH, McDonald NB, et al: Posttraumatic stress among young children after the death of a friend or acquaintance in a terrorist bombing. Psychiatric Services 51:386-388, 2000
 
Ronen T: Difficulties in assessing traumatic reactions in children. Journal of Loss and Trauma 7:87-106, 2002
 
Scheeringa MS, Wright MJ, Hunt JP, et al: Factors affecting the diagnosis and prediction of PTSD symptomatology in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry 163:644-651, 2006
 
Carr A: Interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatric Rehabilitation 7:231-244, 2004
 
Fairbrother G, Stuber J, Galea S, et al: Unmet need for counseling services by children in New York City after the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center: implications for pediatricians. Pediatrics 113:1367-1374, 2004
 
Stuber J, Fairbrother G, Galea S, et al: Determinants of counseling for children in Manhattan after the September 11 attacks. Psychiatric Services 53:815-822, 2002
 
Felton C: Project Liberty: a public health response to New Yorkers' mental health needs arising from the World Trade Center terrorist attacks. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 79:429-433, 2002
 
Data Management Toolkit Draft. Rockville, Md, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, 2001
 
Jackson CT, Allen G, Essock SM, et al: Clusters of event reactions among recipients of Project Liberty mental health counseling. Psychiatric Services 57:1271-1276, 2006
 
Terr LC, Bloch DA, Michael BA, et al: Children's symptoms in the wake of Challenger: a field study of distant-traumatic effects and an outline of related conditions. American Journal of Psychiatry 156:1536-1544, 1999
 
Lubit R, Rovine D, Defrancisci L, et al: Impact of trauma on children. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 9:128-138, 2003
 
Goenjian AK, Stenibert AM, Najarian LM, et al: Prospective study of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive reactions after earthquake and political violence. American Journal of Psychiatry 157:911-916, 2000
 
Mulvihill D: The health impact of childhood trauma: an interdisciplinary review 1997-2003. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 28:115-136, 2005
 
Gander ML, von Kanel R: Myocardial infarction and post-traumatic stress disorder: frequency, outcome, and atherosclerotic mechanism. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 13:165-172, 2006
 
Seng JS, Clark MKK, McCarthy AM, et al: PTSD and physical comorbidity among women receiving Medicaid: results for service-use data. Journal of Traumatic Stress 19:45-56, 2006
 
Stein BD, Jaycox LH, Kataoka SH, et al: A mental health intervention for schoolchildren exposed to violence: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:603-611, 2003
 
Goenjian AK, Karayan I, Pynoos RS, et al: Outcome of psychotherapy among early adolescents after trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:536-542
 
Cohen JA, Berlliner L, Mannarino AO: Treating traumatized children: a research review and synthesis. Trauma Violence and Abuse 1:29-46, 2000
 
Ruggiero K, Morris TL, Scotti JR: Treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder: current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 8:210-227, 2001
 
Goenjian AK, Walling D, Steinberg AM, et al: A prospective study of posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions among treated and untreated adolescents 5 years after a catastrophic disaster. American Journal of Psychiatry 162:2302-2308, 2005
 
Chemtob CM, Nakashima J, Carlson JG: Brief treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related post-traumatic stress disorder: a field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology 58:99-112, 2002
 
Balaban V: Psychological assessment of children in disasters and emergencies. Disasters 30:178-198, 2006
 
+
+

CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Web of Science® Times Cited: 8

Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 30.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 7.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 45.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 7.  >
Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2nd Edition > Chapter 38.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
APA Guidelines
PubMed Articles