Kellerman's formula characters include Alex Delaware, the forensic psychologist who is divorced and romantically involved with a clinical psychologist. The two have long separations that give him time to work night and day, intense romantic moments, and a traumatic intertwining of his work and hers. The formula for such independent gumshoes doesn't allow for a stable partner—for example, Robert Crais's Elvis Cole, Michael Connelly's Harry Bosch, and Henning Mankell's Kurt Wallender. The next formula character is the fat, self-indulgent sidekick. In Rage, this is Milo. He is huge and has prodigious appetites for fatty foods and liquor. Milo's appetites are connected with many consultations in restaurants in the Los Angeles area, whose specialty foods are deliciously described in the book. Hard-eating, hard-drinking detectives are found in J. D. Wingfield's Jack Frost and in Clint, the ex-cop colleague of James Lee Burke's Dave Robicheaux. Of course, the refinement of the gourmand extraordinaire, Nero Wolfe, is in stark contrast to these rough, rowdy, and lewd fellows.