The final section, part 4, is divided into prevention and treatment. The authors spend a great deal of time emphasizing the fact that prevention efforts for pathological gambling are in the early stages. Prevention is an often-neglected area of treatment that every health care professional needs to utilize. There is no doubt, even though it has not yet been substantiated by data, that prevention efforts with gamblers will save significant amounts of time and money. The remainder of the chapter describes two forms of treatment for pathological gamblers that have the most supporting data, cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacologic management. These treatments are well described, and, because the number of studies is small, the review is comprehensive. Absent from these chapters is a section on other common forms of psychotherapeutic approaches to treating pathological gamblers, such as psychodynamic, supportive, motivational enhancement, and family therapy. Research into the efficacy of these forms of treatment is ongoing, yet they are commonly used by current gambling treatment providers.