Ghaemi then assembles, in logical sequence, a series of chapters on the clinician's thought process and approach to patients. He is guided by a driving urge for pluralism and integration, with which he contrasts eclecticism. The reader gets a broad smattering of a variety of philosophical thought over the ages. Ghaemi himself, with a strong background in psychopharmacology, presents good summaries of major Western figures from the late 19th and early 20th centuries—Hegel, Karl Jaspers (who moved from psychiatry to philosophy), William James and Charles Sanders Peirce (the American pragmatists), Wilhelm Dilthey (the German philosopher of history), and Claude Bernard (the French philosopher of science who influenced Zola). He posits that these individuals all believed that good scientists perforce always do "philosophy," in the sense of "thinking hard" about what they are doing and why they are doing it—just as good philosophers always perforce keep up with science's latest finding.