The report concludes with various recommendations that require psychiatric and psychological expertise. First, it is recommended that the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, including the National Institutes of Health, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), develop evidence-based techniques, training, and education for psychological first aid in the preevent, event, and postevent phases and develop methods of mental health surveillance to apply to interventions. Second, it is recommended that academic centers and professional associations ensure the education and training of health professionals, public officials, and the public safety sector. Third, psychological consequences should be incorporated into planning, preparedness, and response to terrorism by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the Department of Labor, the Department of Education, private business organizations, the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Homeland Security, and the federal, state, and local public health infrastructure. Finally, the report recommends that federal agencies coordinate their research and funding agendas and fund the study of best practices in this area.