The problem with this analogistic line of reasoning is that the similarities apply with equal force to criminal and antisocial conduct. Virtually identical genetic heritability estimates and relapse rates are reported in the literature for criminal and aggressive behavior, conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. The issue of treatment noncompliance makes lesser sense in this context, because few adult clients receive treatment targeted specifically at criminal or antisocial behavior. Heritability estimates for criminal and aggressive behavior generally range from .30 to .70 (6,7,8,9), with a mean of .50 derived from a meta-analysis of more than 100 studies (10). Similarly, heritability estimates for conduct disorder symptoms range from .40 to .70, with most studies reporting estimates of around .50 (11,12,13,14). Heritability estimates for antisocial personality disorder symptoms range from .30 to .70 (11,12,15). Finally, relapse (or recidivism) rates for criminal and aggressive behavior generally hover around 50 percent (16,17), which is virtually identical to the relapse rates reported for type 1 diabetes, asthma, hypertension, and drug dependence.