The authors evaluated the effort of New Jersey jails to plan for the postrelease treatment needs of inmates with mental illness compared with inmates with heart disease and HIV infection or AIDS. Seventy percent of interviewees expressed a belief that release planning for persons with serious mental illness is very or extremely important. However, virtually all the jails reported providing "no real release planning." A majority of the jails provide aftercare plans for fewer than 10 percent of inmates with serious mental illness. A lack of release planning was noted for the other chronic conditions. Release planning for particular chronic problems is most common and complete in facilities with special treatment programs, such as a mental health unit.