Besides conducting this career-long crusade, Storer was a major figure in a variety of medical issues. He was one of the leaders in creating the medical specialty of gynecology, warding off criticisms from Boston's conservative medical leaders that medical specialization was a form of quackery. Storer also challenged the role of asylum superintendents, calling for medical consultations in these institutions and claiming that female insanity was caused by pelvic disorders. Storer further alienated the Boston medical establishment by defending his hero, the Scottish gynecologist James Young Simpson, who introduced chloroform, and Storer promoted chloroform as the anesthetic agent of choice instead of ether, introduced in Boston in 1846. During an era when alcohol was a major ingredient in many drugs, Storer called for alcohol's removal from all medicines. Late in his career Storer became a leader in the new public health movement.