The underlying question, of course, is what it means to be competent to vote. Case law on the voting rights of the mentally disabled is sparse and appears not to have addressed this foundational issue at all. Moreover, some of the possible answers have already been rejected by lawmakers. It might be thought, for example, that voting requires the ability to read, since ballots must be deciphered before a vote can be cast. In addition, much of the information regarding candidates' positions, on which a reasoned choice should be predicated, is also circulated in written form. But, as noted above, the Voting Rights Act barred the use of literacy tests, at least in part because of their discriminatory application. Thus there is no doubt that people who are unable to read are permitted to vote. Many such voters rely on the guidance of mock-up ballots, on which favored candidates are marked, once they are in the voting booth.