On the question of how to decide whether to select psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy in a particular case, Mark Levey points out that the decision can be made either by seeing each modality as indicated for different aspects of the patient's problems or by making both modalities part of an integrated treatment plan in which each has its place. He favors the latter course. This thoughtful chapter emphasizes the importance clinically, practically, politically, and ideologically of the vexed relationship between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, and it is relevant to the next chapter by Donald Klein, who surveys data on outcome studies of psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy. Klein is skeptical about the value of many studies that support psychotherapy, a position contrasting with Gabbard's. Klein feels that outcome studies need to be collaboratively carried out by a psychotherapist and a pharmacologist, always with the use of a pill placebo control.