A total of 641 randomly selected Australian veterans of the Vietnam War were interviewed about their use of health care in the previous two weeks to determine what factors contributed to health care consumption. Seventy-three variables were examined by univariate linear regression and then grouped into seven categories relating to age, physical and mental health, predisposition to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), deployment and repatriation experiences, and membership in veterans groups. PTSD was associated with an additional cost of $79 in health care for the two-week period. Each physical diagnosis was associated with an additional $28. Alcohol consumption was not related to health care costs. Other important variables contributing to costs were depression, educational status, the quality of the repatriation experience, and social support.