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Article   |    
Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity and Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders
Timothy E. Wilens; Joseph Biederman; Thomas J. Spencer; Richard J. Frances
Psychiatric Services 1994; doi:
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Massachusetts General Hospital and the department of psychiatry at Harvard Medical SchooL

1994 by the American Psychiatric Association

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A robust literature supports a relationship between ADHD and psychoactive substance use disorders that has familial, genetic, environmental, and concurrent psychopathological elements. Conduct disorder appears to mediate ADHD and substance use disorders. Complex genetic, behavioral, and self-medication influences contribute to the development and continuation of substance use disorders in subjects withADHD. Patients with ADHD and psychoactive substance use disorders require comprehensive multimodal intervention incorporating strategiesof addiction treatment and mental health care.

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