Objectiver The American Psychiatric Association's committee on religion and psychiatry has issued guidelines urging therapists to understand and maintain an empathic respect for patients' religious orientations and beliefs. This paper reviews recent literature on the effects of patients' and therapists' religious values on psychotherapy. Methods: Relevant psychiatric and psychological publications were searched; both empirical studies and clinical discussions were included. Results and conclusions: Psychotherapists communicate their values to patients in psychotherapy. Many therapists have secular values, which may clash with some patients' religious values. To avoid negative countertransferences, therapists must be sensitive to patients' values and aware of their own attitudes about religion. Therapists' self-disclosure of their attitudes and belieft has been encouraged, and referral of patients to clergy or religious counselors is sometimes recommended.