Proposals to simplify the diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder and to provide more emphasis on psychopathic traits are reasonable options to consider for DSM-IV. They are responsive to criticisms of DSM-III-R and to recent findings.However, the threshold for revisions to the nomenclature is higher for DSM-IV than it was for DSM-III or DSM-III-R. The DSM-III-R critena set for antisocial personality disorder is lengthy and complex and does not substantially represent the personality traits of psychopathy, but it has performed well in clinical practice and is supported by empirical data. Any revision would likely be disruptive to both research and clinical practice.The field trial will provide reliability and validity data related to the proposed revisions. Together with the results provided by a review of the literature and data reanalyses, the field trial will facilitate an empirically based decision.