For nine months, all psychiatric inpatients who came into a 26-bed coed adult ward in a state hospital were taught the principles and application of differential attention to determine whether it could be a used as a significant therapeutic modality on a ward for chronic patients. In two half-hour classes each week, patients were encouraged to praise each other's desirable behaviors and ignore undesirable ones. Thirteen patients were measured for improvement of 21 behaviors that included self-care, adaptive, and social skills. The target behaviors doubled in frequency as a result of the intervention, and praise improved the performance of target behaviors whether the praise was prompted by staff or not. Men and women improved equally from the intervention. Behaviors that were consistently prompted by patients improved more than self-initiated behaviors. Patients who volunteered to be helped by peer praise appeared to benefit the most.