In Poland primary health settings provide about 71 percent of mental health services, particularly to patients with less serious illnesses, while psychiatry provides specialized mental health care for the chronic mentally ill, the mentally retarded, and patients with alcohol or drug dependence. Poland has a large number of outpatient clinics and an extensive network of sheltered workshops. Most inpatient psychiatric beds are located in mental hospitals; few general hospitals have psychiatric units. Deinstitutionalization has been less extensive in Poland than in many other countries; only about 10 percent of the chronic patients treated in mental hospitals were deinstitutionalized between 1970 and 1981. During that period the proportion of patients hospitalized for a year or more decreased, the number of chronic patients treated in nursing homes increased, and the pattern of hospitalization shifted toward multiple readmissions.