In a study to evaluate the effectiveness of specific pharmacological treatment groups, former VA inpatients who have similar diagnoses and respond satisfactorily to drug treatment join a Prolixin group, a lithium group, or an affective disorder group. In monthly meetings the patients learn about their illness, the importance of taking medication as prescribed, and possible side-effects; they also receive psychological support. The 85 patients who joined the groups during the first 12 months attended 87.3 per cent of the sessions. Twenty per cent of them were rehospitalized, about half of them because they did not take medication as prescribed. The authors believe the groups are an economical and effective way to provide aftercare.