Behavior modification techniques that emphasize external control, such as token economies, have frequently been used in state hospital settings. However, at the New Jersey Neuropsychiatric Institute, experimental treatment programs are being developed to teach patients greater self-control, using the methods of Wolpe and others. Patients are trained in the techniques of relaxation, desensitization, improvement of self-image, behavior analysis, behavior control, assertive training, and rational thinking. A basic four-week program has been adapted for use with drug addicts, alcoholics, and acutely ill mental patients, as well as with their families and staff. Preliminary research findings have been promising, and the programs have been enthusiastically received by the participanis.