0
Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

1
Articles   |    
Perceptions of the State Policy Environment and Adoption of Medications in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders
Hannah K. Knudsen, Ph.D.; Amanda J. Abraham, Ph.D.
Psychiatric Services 2012; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100034
View Author and Article Information

Dr. Knudsen is affiliated with the Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky, 109 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY 40536-0086 (e-mail: hannah.knudsen@uky.edu).
Dr. Abraham is with the Owens Institute for Behavioral Research, University of Georgia, Athens.

Copyright © 2012 by the American Psychiatric Association.

Abstract

Objective:  Despite growing interest in the use of evidence-based treatment practices for treating substance use disorders, adoption of medications by treatment programs remains modest. Drawing on resource dependence and institutional theory, this study examined the relationships between adoption of medications by treatment programs and their perceptions about the state policy environment.

Methods:  Data were collected through mailed surveys and telephone interviews with 250 administrators of publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs in the United States between 2009 and 2010. Multiple imputation and multivariate logistic regression were used to estimate the associations between perceptions of the state policy environment and the odds of adopting at least one medication for the treatment of substance use disorders.

Results:  A total of 91 (37%) programs reported having prescribed any medication for treatment of a substance use disorder. Programs were significantly more likely to have adopted at least one medication if they perceived greater support for medications by the Single State Agency. The odds of adoption were significantly greater if the program was aware that at least one medication was included on their state's Medicaid formulary and that state-contract funding permitted the purchase of medications.

Conclusions:  States may play significant roles in promoting the adoption of medications, but adequate dissemination of information about state policies and priorities may be vital to further adoption. Future research should continue to study the relationships between the adoption of medications for treating substance use disorders and the evolving policy environment. (Psychiatric Services 63:19–25, 2012)

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

For the past decade, federal agencies and private foundations have sought to improve the quality of substance abuse treatment by promoting the implementation of evidence-based treatment practices (15). Concurrently, the number of pharmacotherapies has increased to include buprenorphine, acamprosate, and extended-release injectable naltrexone. Along with disulfiram, tablet naltrexone, and methadone, they constitute the medications currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating opioid and alcohol use disorders.

Although these medications are available, relatively few specialty treatment organizations besides opioid treatment programs dispensing methadone prescribe these medications. Adoption is notably low by programs that primarily rely on governmental sources of funding (69). These publicly funded organizations, which include government-owned programs and nonprofits that contract with governmental entities, deliver the majority of treatment in the United States (1012).

Most studies of adoption of medications for substance abuse have focused on intraorganizational factors and used diffusion theory (13) to explain the relationships between pharmacotherapy adoption and organizational resources (1416). Certain resources, particularly access to medical staff, have been repeatedly linked to medication adoption (79,1719). Nonadopting programs frequently cite lack of access to physicians as a highly significant barrier (20). However, rates of medication adoption continue to be less than 50% even in programs with physicians (21).

The role of the external environment, particularly state policies and priorities, has been less frequently examined. Sociological theories suggest environmental contexts may influence organizational decision making (2224). Resource dependence theory emphasizes how decisions about innovations reflect attempts to adapt to the social networks in which organizations are embedded (25,26). Institutional theory contends that organizations may adopt innovations to enhance their legitimacy with key stakeholders (27).

For publicly funded substance abuse treatment organizations, state governments represent important network relationships because states are major funders of treatment services (28). Treatment organizations may financially benefit from government contracts to provide services (29). States determine whether services are covered by Medicaid (30), and policies providing financial support for pharmacotherapy vary among tates (29,31).

In addition to establishing funding policies, state substance abuse authorities, also known as Single State Agencies (SSAs), may demonstrate normative support for innovations by offering training and disseminating information about implementation (32). Such activities send signals about the value of an innovation and imply that adoption may enhance programs' institutional legitimacy.

Research on the relationships between state policies and medication adoption is limited. Interviews with representatives of SSAs suggest that many view pharmacotherapy as a state priority but that funding for implementation is often lacking (33). Two studies have integrated organizational data about medications with measures of state policies constructed from external sources. Heinrich and Hill (34) merged facility-level data about naltrexone adoption with state-level measures of policy derived from secondary sources. Indicators of restrictiveness in states' Medicaid policies were negatively associated with naltrexone adoption. Similarly, Ducharme and Abraham (35) integrated facility-level data on buprenorphine adoption with interview data from state authorities. Buprenorphine adoption was significantly greater if the state's Medicaid formulary included this medication.

An alternative approach to measuring the state policy environment is to consider the perspective of treatment programs. To some extent, state policies are meaningful only if they are effectively communicated to treatment programs. Programs unaware of state priorities regarding evidence-based practices may be less likely to make decisions that align their programs with the state policy environment. Resource dependence and institutional theory suggest that programs that are aware of supportive state policies are more likely to adopt those innovations.

Using data collected from publicly funded treatment programs, this study evaluated two hypotheses related to the adoption of medications for treating substance abuse and dependence. The first hypothesis was that treatment programs' perceptions about their SSA's support for medications are positively associated with the odds of adopting at least one medication. Second, we hypothesized that programs' awareness of medication-supportive state funding policies is positively associated with medication adoption. We focused on adoption of any medications because research has shown that adoption of one medication is associated with adoption of others (8,36).

+

Sample

The study drew upon a previously established, nationally representative U.S. sample of 318 publicly funded substance abuse treatment centers from the National Treatment Center Study. The sample, originally recruited in 2004–2006, was constructed by using a two-stage design that randomly selected U.S. counties from ten population-based strata and then randomly selected treatment organizations within those counties. To be eligible, treatment organizations were required to be open to the public and offer a minimum level of care at least equivalent to structured outpatient treatment. They were also required to have received at least half of their past year's revenues from government block grants or contracts or to have derived at least half of their patients' expected source of primary payment from allocated public funds other than public insurance, such as block grants or contracts. Opioid treatment programs that exclusively dispensed methadone without offering other levels of care were not eligible. Full details of the sampling procedure have been published elsewhere (20).

+

Data collection

Data collection occurred between August 2009 and June 2010. Trained interviewers contacted 318 programs by telephone to ascertain whether they still delivered substance abuse treatment. A total of 27 programs (8%) had ceased operations completely or no longer offered substance abuse treatment. The remaining 291 programs were mailed a packet containing a study description letter, two informed-consent forms, the survey, and a postage-paid envelope. Programs that had not responded after six weeks were mailed a second packet. Finally, interviewers contacted nonresponding programs by telephone. Administrators who provided verbal informed consent were interviewed by using the same survey that had been mailed. Participating programs received $50. The research design was approved by the institutional review boards of the University of Georgia and the University of Kentucky.

Data were obtained from 250 administrators of the 291 programs contacted (86% response rate). Nine (3%) administrators declined to participate, and interviews could not be scheduled with 32 (11%) administrators despite repeated attempts. We used data from the 2004–2006 interviews to compare participating programs (N=250) with those that had closed (N=27) and those that did not participate (N=41) on a set of organizational characteristics (20). Bivariate multinomial logistic regression models indicated that nonparticipating and closed programs did not differ from participating programs on any organizational characteristics except government ownership. The odds of program closure, relative to study participation, were significantly greater among government-owned programs than nongovernmental programs (relative risk ratio=3.28, 95% confidence interval=1.44–7.46; p<.01).

+

Measures

The survey measured current use of medications, perceptions of the state policy environment, and organizational characteristics. The dependent variable of any medication adoption was constructed from two items. First, administrators were asked whether the program prescribed any medications for the treatment of substance use disorders or psychiatric conditions. If the administrator responded affirmatively, she or he was asked whether the program prescribed only psychiatric medications, prescribed medications only for substance abuse or dependence, or prescribed medications for both conditions. Programs whose practices fell into one of the latter two groups were considered adopters and were coded 1. Programs prescribing only psychiatric medications or no medications were considered nonadopters and coded 0.

Two measures of the state policy environment were constructed. Administrators were asked to rate their agreement with three items, listed in Table 1, about the SSA's support for medications on a scale of 0, strongly disagree, to 4, strongly agree. Higher scores indicate greater SSA support. These items were combined into a mean score (Cronbach's α=.78). Awareness of medication-supportive state funding policies was based on two items. For the first item, administrators were asked, “Based on your knowledge, does your state's Medicaid program include any addiction treatment medications on its formulary?” Response options were yes, no, and don't know. Given that state policies are meaningful only if they are recognized by treatment programs, we collapsed the no and don't know responses into a single group.

For the second item, administrators were asked, “Can treatment providers with state contracts to provide addiction treatment services use those state contract funds to pay for the purchase of medications?” Response options were the same as for the first question, and no and don't know responses were collapsed into a single group. We created a typology of four mutually exclusive categories—awareness of both policies, awareness of only a supportive Medicaid policy, awareness of only a supportive state contract funding policy, and awareness of neither policy.

Organizational characteristics included government ownership, location within a health care setting, accreditation by an external organization, availability of medically supervised detoxification, and levels of care. The number of physicians on staff, number of physicians on contract, and number of nurses employed by the organization were measured.

Possible scores on 12-step treatment orientation range from 0, strongly inconsistent, to 4, strongly consistent, with greater scores indicating a stronger orientation toward a 12-step treatment model. Averaging the three items into a mean score (Cronbach's α=.78) resulted in a measure of consistency between the program's philosophy and a 12-step orientation to treatment (37).

Although treatment programs were the unit of analysis, we collected basic demographic information about the survey respondents.

+

Analysis

Descriptive statistics were calculated for the study variables. Given the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable, logistic regression was used to estimate the model of medication adoption (38). Listwise deletion, or elimination of cases with missing data on the covariates, would have resulted in the loss of 11% of cases, so we used multiple imputation to address covariates with missing data (39). To be conservative, we excluded two cases with missing data for the dependent variable (40). Missing values were imputed using “ice” in Stata 11.1 (41,42), yielding 20 imputed data sets that were based on the variables in the model. This multiple imputation by chained equations approach is superior to other imputation procedures (43). We used the “mi estimate” command during model estimation to produce a single set of results that pooled estimates from each of the data sets (44,45).

In this sample of 250 publicly funded substance abuse treatment organizations, 91 (37%) programs prescribed at least one of the six FDA-approved medications. Buprenorphine was the most widely adopted medication, although it was prescribed by less than 25% of programs. Descriptive statistics of the programs are presented in Table 1. About half of respondents (N=134, 54%) were women, and most (N=182, 74%) were white. Only 32 (13%) of respondents reported being African American or black, and 18 (7%) identified as Hispanic or Latino. A majority (N=173, 70%) held at least a master's-level degree, and the average age was 50.8±10.0 years.

Administrators' perceptions about the supportiveness of the state policy environment were mixed. The mean±SD level of perceived SSA support for medications (2.3±.9) was slightly above the scale's midpoint. About one-third (37%) of programs indicated that the state's Medicaid formulary included at least one medication. Less than 30% reported that state contract funding could be used to purchase medications. Substantial percentages of programs were unaware of their states' medication-related funding policies.

At the bivariate level, the state policy environment was associated with medication adoption. Adopters perceived significantly greater SSA support for medications than nonadopters (2.6±.9 versus 2.1±.9, respectively; t=−3.58, df=235, p<.001). A chi square test of the awareness of supportive funding policies and medication adoption revealed varying rates of adoption across the four categories (χ2=52.8, df=3, p<.001). Adoption was quite low in the 128 programs unaware of either policy; only 19% (N=24) were medication adopters. Of the 46 programs aware of a supportive Medicaid policy, 46% (N=21) were adopters, and of the 28 programs aware of a supportive state contract policy 36% (N=10) were adopters. Adoption was highest (79%) in the 43 programs aware of both policies (N=34).

The multivariate logistic regression model of medication adoption appears in Table 2. Consistent with our first hypothesis, there was a positive association between perceived SSA support and medication adoption. Two of the three comparisons within the measure of awareness of medication-supportive state funding policies were significant, providing partial support for the second hypothesis. The odds of adoption were about three times greater for programs aware of a Medicaid supportive policy than for programs aware of neither a Medicaid nor a state-contract funding policy. The odds of medication adoption were nearly four times greater for programs aware of both policies than for those aware of neither Medicaid nor state-contract funding policies.

The difference in medication adoption between programs aware of a supportive state-contract funding policy and programs aware of neither policy was not significant. Finally, medication adoption was associated with accreditation; the availability of detoxification services; and the number of physicians on staff, physicians on contract, and nurses on staff.

Programs offering methadone are subject to significant regulation, so additional analyses considered whether such programs influenced these results. Exclusion of methadone-offering programs (N=22) had little impact on the association between perceived SSA support and medication adoption. Medication adoption continued to be more likely in programs aware of a Medicaid-supportive policy (p<.01). The association between awareness of both policies and medication adoption approached significance (p=.053). There was some evidence that perceived SSA support may play a mediating role—a positive association was found between adoption and awareness of both policies (p<.05) when SSA support was not entered into the model of medication adoption. In addition, perceived SSA support was positively associated with the likelihood of awareness of both policies (p<.01). [Results of analyses that excluded the methadone-offering programs are available in an online appendix to this report at ps.psychiatryonline.org.]

This study of publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs found that only 37% prescribed at least one medication for treating substance use disorders in 2009–2010. Although this rate was modest, it was about 14 percentage points greater than the adoption rate by the sample in 2004–2006 (20), an indication of some expansion in the availability of pharmacotherapy.

These findings contribute to the small but growing body of research on state policies and medication adoption. Consistent with resource dependence theory (24,25) and institutional theory (27), we found support for two hypotheses. First, the odds of adoption were greater in programs that reported awareness of two supportive state funding policies, namely, that medications were included in the Medicaid formulary and that state funding policies allowed programs to purchase medications with state contract dollars. Notably, awareness of a policy that allowed the purchase of medications in the absence of awareness of a Medicaid supportive policy was not associated with medication adoption after adjustment for other organizational characteristics and supportiveness of the SSA.

The findings are consistent with other studies highlighting the importance of Medicaid formularies in facilitating the adoption of medications (34,35). In addition, we found that efforts by SSAs to actively promote medications were positively associated with the likelihood of medication adoption.

Whereas aligning state funding policies to support medications may promote adoption, the mere presence of policies may be insufficient. Effective dissemination of these policies to treatment programs is critical because a substantial proportion of programs did not know whether their states had implemented medication-supportive funding policies. As long noted by sociologists, reality is socially constructed (46), and so the existence of supportive state policies is unlikely to be a sufficient driver of innovation adoption if it is not coupled with adequate dissemination.

Our findings also provide empirical support for the strategies proposed by the National Quality Forum to increase the adoption of evidence-based practices (4). The Forum suggested that financing, regulations and accreditation, training, and infrastructure development may be vital strategies. Although we did not measure infrastructure development, our model supported the other three strategies by the association of awareness of supportive funding policies, provision by SSAs of training and information, and accreditation with medication adoption.

Recent demonstration projects seeking to increase the adoption and implementation of evidence-based practices in substance abuse and mental health treatment also point to the importance of the state policy environment. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Advancing Recovery Initiative partnered state authorities and treatment providers to promote implementation of evidence-based practices (3,47). In states focusing on medications, funding policies were identified as critical barriers to implementation and were addressed through redirecting existing state funds to pay for medications, amending state contracts to include medications, and changing states' Medicaid formularies (48).

Similarly, the experiences of mental health agencies in an evidence-based practices project highlighted the centrality of state mental health authorities in the implementation process (49,50). Specifically, greater implementation was accomplished when state mental health authorities clearly communicated how funding policies could be used, offered ongoing trainings, and communicated normative support for implementation (51).

Several limitations of this study should be noted. First, this sample is representative only of the publicly funded treatment sector in the United States. Although such programs are the largest sector, these findings may not generalize to other sectors, such as privately funded treatment organizations, programs in the Department of Veterans Affairs system, and programs that exclusively dispense methadone. Second, the cross-sectional design and reliance on program administrators' reports limit our ability to establish causality and may have resulted in social desirability or recall bias.

In addition, our measures of the state policy environment were limited. There may be other state policies that serve as barriers and facilitators to medication adoption that we did not measure. Because we did not collect data directly from SSAs to measure state policies, there may be error in programs' awareness of medication-supportive policies. However, data from a state-level report from 2008 allowed us to examine the inclusion of buprenorphine and naltrexone on Medicaid formularies for 83 of the 91 programs reporting that at least one medication was included in the Medicaid formulary (52). A total of 75 programs (90%) were located in states that had included buprenorphine, naltrexone, or both for the treatment of opioid addiction in their Medicaid formulary in 2008. These data provide some evidence that the programs were correct in their awareness. Similar data on alcohol pharmacotherapies were not available. Future research should consider collecting policy data at the levels of programs and SSAs.

Finally, the focus of our study was adoption, defined as any prescription of these medications within treatment programs, rather than implementation, or the extent to which these medications were routinely used. Implementation was not measured, although recent data from a sample of privately funded programs indicated that the percentage of patients receiving medications within adopting organizations was limited (21). Models of implementation are important directions for future research.

Our findings suggest that widespread adoption of medications in substance abuse treatment may be weakened by programs' lack of awareness about funding policies and a perceived lack of support by SSAs. Recent federal policy changes, such as the 2008 Wellstone-Domenici Parity Act and the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (health care reform), may have implications for the adoption of medications. How these policy changes will affect treatment programs that rely on governmental funding is not yet known, although there is some concern that the expansion of Medicaid eligibility under health care reform may cause states to cut behavioral health services to control overall spending (30).

The evolving policy environment suggests that continued research is warranted. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that SSAs may play an important role in expanding the availability of medications for substance abuse treatment by conveying normative support for their use and designing and disseminating funding policies that help programs pay for their implementation.

Support for this research was provided by grant 65111 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Substance Abuse Policy Research Program, grant R01DA014482 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and grant F32AA016872 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

The authors report no competing interests.

Hanson  GR;  Leshner  AI;  Tai  B:  Putting drug abuse research to use in real-life settings.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 23:69–70, 2002
 
McCarty  D;  Edmondson  EA;  Hartnett  T:  Charting a path between research and practice in alcoholism treatment.  Alcohol Research and Health 29:5–10, 2006
 
McCarty  D;  Gustafson  D;  Capoccia  VA  et al:  Improving care for the treatment of alcohol and drug disorders.  Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 36:52–60, 2009
 
 National Voluntary Consensus Standards for the Treatment of Substance Use Conditions:  Evidence-Based Treatment Practices .  Washington, DC,  National Quality Forum, 2007. Available at www.qualityforum.org/Publications/2007/09/National_Voluntary_Consensus_Standards_for_the_Treatment_of_Substance_Use_ConditionsEvidence-Based_Treatment_Practices.aspx
 
Tai  B;  Straus  MM;  Liu  D  et al:  The first decade of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: bridging the gap between research and practice to improve drug abuse treatment.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 38:S4–S13, 2010
 
Ducharme  LJ;  Knudsen  HK;  Roman  PM:  Trends in the adoption of medications for alcohol dependence.  Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26(suppl 1):S13–S19, 2006
 
Knudsen  HK;  Ducharme  LJ;  Roman  PM:  The use of antidepressant medications in substance abuse treatment: the public-private distinction, organizational compatibility, and the environment.  Journal of Health and Social Behavior 48:195–210, 2007
 
Knudsen  HK;  Ducharme  LJ;  Roman  PM:  The adoption of medications in substance abuse treatment: associations with organizational characteristics and technology clusters.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence 87:164–174, 2007
 
Knudsen  HK;  Ducharme  LJ;  Roman  PM:  Early adoption of buprenorphine in substance abuse treatment centers: data from the private and public sectors.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 30:363–373, 2006
 
Cartwright  WS;  Solano  PL:  The economics of public health: financing drug abuse treatment services.  Health Policy 66:247–260, 2003
 
Chriqui  JF;  Terry-McElrath  Y;  McBride  DC  et al:  State policies matter: the case of outpatient drug treatment program practices.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 35:13–21, 2008
 
Heinrich  CJ;  Fournier  E:  Dimensions of publicness and performance in substance abuse treatment organizations.  Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23:49–70, 2004
 
Rogers  EM:  Diffusion of Innovations , 5th ed.  New York,  Free Press, 2003
 
Thomas  CP;  Wallack  SS;  Lee  S  et al:  Research to practice: adoption of naltrexone in alcoholism treatment.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24:1–11, 2003
 
Fuller  BE;  Rieckmann  T;  McCarty  D  et al:  Adoption of naltrexone to treat alcohol dependence.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 28:273–280, 2005
 
Roman  PM;  Johnson  JA:  Adoption and implementation of new technologies in substance abuse treatment.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 22:211–218, 2002
 
Ducharme  LJ;  Knudsen  HK;  Roman  PM  et al:  Innovation adoption in substance abuse treatment: exposure, trialability, and the Clinical Trials Network.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 32:321–329, 2007
 
Knudsen  HK;  Abraham  AJ;  Johnson  JA  et al:  Buprenorphine adoption in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 37:307–312, 2009
 
Knudsen  HK;  Roman  PM:  Racial and ethnic composition as a correlate of medication availability within addiction treatment organizations.  Sociological Focus 42:133–151, 2009
 
Knudsen  HK;  Roman  PM;  Oser  CB:  Facilitating factors and barriers to the use of medications in publicly funded addiction treatment organizations.  Journal of Addiction Medicine 4:99–107, 2010
 
Knudsen  HK;  Abraham  AJ;  Roman  PM:  Adoption and implementation of medications in addiction treatment programs.  Journal of Addiction Medicine 5:21–27, 2011
 
Scott  WR:  Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems , 4th ed.  Upper Saddle River, NJ,  Prentice Hall, 1998
 
Granovetter  M:  Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness.  American Journal of Sociology 91:481–510, 1985
 
Pfeffer  J:  New Directions for Organization Theory: Problems and Prospects .  New York,  Oxford University Press, 1997
 
Pfeffer  J:  A resource dependence perspective on intercorporate relations; in Intercorporate Relations . Edited by Mizruchi  MS;  Schwartz  M  Cambridge, United Kingdom,  Cambridge University Press, 1987
 
Fennell  ML;  Warnecke  RB:  The Diffusion of Medical Innovations: An Applied Network Analysis .  New York,  Plenum, 1988
 
DiMaggio  PJ;  Powell  WW:  The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields; in The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis . Edited by Powell  WW;  DiMaggio  PJ  Chicago,  University of Chicago Press, 1991
 
Mark  TL;  Coffey  RM;  McKusick  D  et al:  National Estimates of Expenditures for Mental Health Services and Substance Abuse Treatment, 1991–2001 .  Rockville, Md,  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005
 
Kubiak  SP;  Arfken  CL;  Gibson  ES:  Departments of corrections as purchasers of community-based treatment: a national study.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 36:420–427, 2009
 
Garfield  RL;  Lave  JR;  Donohue  JM:  Health reform and the scope of benefits for mental health and substance use disorder services.  Psychiatric Services 61:1081–1086, 2010
 
Thomas  CP;  Garnick  DW;  Horgan  WM  et al:  Advancing performance measures for use of medications in substance abuse treatment.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 40:35–43, 2011
 
Rieckmann  TR;  Kovas  AE;  Fussell  HE  et al:  Implementation of evidence-based practices for treatment of alcohol and drug disorders: the role of the state authority.  Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 36:407–419, 2009
 
Rieckmann  T;  Kovas  AE;  Rutkowski  BA:  Adoption of medications in substance abuse treatment: priorities and strategies of single state authorities.  Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 6(suppl):227–238, 2010
 
Heinrich  CJ;  Hill  CJ:  Role of state policies in the adoption of naltrexone for substance abuse treatment.  Health Services Research 43:951–970, 2008
 
Ducharme  LJ;  Abraham  AJ:  State policy influence on the early diffusion of buprenorphine in community treatment programs.  Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 3:17, 2008
 
Abraham  AJ;  Roman  PM:  Early adoption of injectable naltrexone for alcohol-use disorders: findings in the private-treatment sector.  Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 71:460–466, 2010
 
Kasarabada  ND;  Hser  YI;  Parker  L  et al:  A self-administered instrument for assessing therapeutic approaches of drug-user treatment counselors.  Substance Use and Misuse 36:273–299, 2001
 
Long  JS:  Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables .  Thousand Oaks, Calif,  Sage, 1997
 
Allison  PD:  Missing Data .  Thousand Oaks, Calif,  Sage, 2002
 
Allison  PD:  Missing data; in The SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology . Edited by Millsap  RE;  Maydeu-Olivares  A  Thousand Oaks, Calif,  Sage, 2009
 
Royston  P:  Multiple imputation of missing values: update.  Stata Journal 5:188–201, 2005
 
Royston  P:  Multiple imputation of missing values: update of ice.  Stata Journal 5:527–536, 2005
 
Ambler  G;  Omar  RZ;  Royston  P:  A comparison of imputation techniques for handling missing predictor values in a risk model with a binary outcome.  Statistical Methods in Medical Research 16:277–298, 2007
 
Barnard  J;  Rubin  DR:  Small sample degrees of freedom with multiple imputation.  Biometrika 86:948–955, 1999
 
Royston  P:  Multiple imputation of missing values.  Stata Journal 4:227–241, 2004
 
Berger  P;  Luckmann  T:  The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge .  Garden City, NY,  Anchor, 1966
 
Evans  AC;  Rieckmann  T;  Fitzgerald  MM  et al:  Teaching the NIATx model of process improvement as an evidence-based process.  Journal of Teaching in the Addictions 6:21–37, 2007
 
Roman  PM;  McCarty  D:  Assessment of Project Development in Cohort One of Advancing Recovery: A Multimethod Approach .  Athens, Ga,  University of Georgia, National Treatment Center Study, 2009. Available at www.uga.edu/ntcs/AREV.htm
 
Isett  KR;  Burnam  MA;  Coleman-Beattie  B  et al:  The state policy context of implementation issues for evidence-based practices in mental health.  Psychiatric Services 58:914–921, 2007
 
Magnabosco  JL:  Innovations in mental health services implementation: a report on state-level data from the US Evidence-Based Practices Project.  Implementation Science 1:13, 2006
 
Isett  KR;  Burnam  MA;  Coleman-Beattie  B  et al:  The role of state mental health authorities in managing change for the implementation of evidence-based practices.  Community Mental Health Journal 44:195–211, 2008
 
Rinaldo  D:  50-State Table: Medicaid Financing of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opiate Addiction .  Washington, DC,  National Conference of State Legislatures, 2008. Available at www.ncsl.org/IssuesResearch/Health/MATOpiate50StateTableMedicaid/tabid/14144/Default.aspx
 
References Container
 
Anchor for JumpAnchor for Jump
Table 1

Characteristics of 250 publicly funded substance abuse treatment centers

 
Anchor for JumpAnchor for Jump
Table 2

Logistic regression model of medication adoption in publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs

Table 1 

Characteristics of 250 publicly funded substance abuse treatment centers

Table 2 

Logistic regression model of medication adoption in publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs

+

References

Hanson  GR;  Leshner  AI;  Tai  B:  Putting drug abuse research to use in real-life settings.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 23:69–70, 2002
 
McCarty  D;  Edmondson  EA;  Hartnett  T:  Charting a path between research and practice in alcoholism treatment.  Alcohol Research and Health 29:5–10, 2006
 
McCarty  D;  Gustafson  D;  Capoccia  VA  et al:  Improving care for the treatment of alcohol and drug disorders.  Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 36:52–60, 2009
 
 National Voluntary Consensus Standards for the Treatment of Substance Use Conditions:  Evidence-Based Treatment Practices .  Washington, DC,  National Quality Forum, 2007. Available at www.qualityforum.org/Publications/2007/09/National_Voluntary_Consensus_Standards_for_the_Treatment_of_Substance_Use_ConditionsEvidence-Based_Treatment_Practices.aspx
 
Tai  B;  Straus  MM;  Liu  D  et al:  The first decade of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: bridging the gap between research and practice to improve drug abuse treatment.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 38:S4–S13, 2010
 
Ducharme  LJ;  Knudsen  HK;  Roman  PM:  Trends in the adoption of medications for alcohol dependence.  Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26(suppl 1):S13–S19, 2006
 
Knudsen  HK;  Ducharme  LJ;  Roman  PM:  The use of antidepressant medications in substance abuse treatment: the public-private distinction, organizational compatibility, and the environment.  Journal of Health and Social Behavior 48:195–210, 2007
 
Knudsen  HK;  Ducharme  LJ;  Roman  PM:  The adoption of medications in substance abuse treatment: associations with organizational characteristics and technology clusters.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence 87:164–174, 2007
 
Knudsen  HK;  Ducharme  LJ;  Roman  PM:  Early adoption of buprenorphine in substance abuse treatment centers: data from the private and public sectors.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 30:363–373, 2006
 
Cartwright  WS;  Solano  PL:  The economics of public health: financing drug abuse treatment services.  Health Policy 66:247–260, 2003
 
Chriqui  JF;  Terry-McElrath  Y;  McBride  DC  et al:  State policies matter: the case of outpatient drug treatment program practices.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 35:13–21, 2008
 
Heinrich  CJ;  Fournier  E:  Dimensions of publicness and performance in substance abuse treatment organizations.  Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23:49–70, 2004
 
Rogers  EM:  Diffusion of Innovations , 5th ed.  New York,  Free Press, 2003
 
Thomas  CP;  Wallack  SS;  Lee  S  et al:  Research to practice: adoption of naltrexone in alcoholism treatment.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24:1–11, 2003
 
Fuller  BE;  Rieckmann  T;  McCarty  D  et al:  Adoption of naltrexone to treat alcohol dependence.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 28:273–280, 2005
 
Roman  PM;  Johnson  JA:  Adoption and implementation of new technologies in substance abuse treatment.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 22:211–218, 2002
 
Ducharme  LJ;  Knudsen  HK;  Roman  PM  et al:  Innovation adoption in substance abuse treatment: exposure, trialability, and the Clinical Trials Network.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 32:321–329, 2007
 
Knudsen  HK;  Abraham  AJ;  Johnson  JA  et al:  Buprenorphine adoption in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 37:307–312, 2009
 
Knudsen  HK;  Roman  PM:  Racial and ethnic composition as a correlate of medication availability within addiction treatment organizations.  Sociological Focus 42:133–151, 2009
 
Knudsen  HK;  Roman  PM;  Oser  CB:  Facilitating factors and barriers to the use of medications in publicly funded addiction treatment organizations.  Journal of Addiction Medicine 4:99–107, 2010
 
Knudsen  HK;  Abraham  AJ;  Roman  PM:  Adoption and implementation of medications in addiction treatment programs.  Journal of Addiction Medicine 5:21–27, 2011
 
Scott  WR:  Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems , 4th ed.  Upper Saddle River, NJ,  Prentice Hall, 1998
 
Granovetter  M:  Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness.  American Journal of Sociology 91:481–510, 1985
 
Pfeffer  J:  New Directions for Organization Theory: Problems and Prospects .  New York,  Oxford University Press, 1997
 
Pfeffer  J:  A resource dependence perspective on intercorporate relations; in Intercorporate Relations . Edited by Mizruchi  MS;  Schwartz  M  Cambridge, United Kingdom,  Cambridge University Press, 1987
 
Fennell  ML;  Warnecke  RB:  The Diffusion of Medical Innovations: An Applied Network Analysis .  New York,  Plenum, 1988
 
DiMaggio  PJ;  Powell  WW:  The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields; in The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis . Edited by Powell  WW;  DiMaggio  PJ  Chicago,  University of Chicago Press, 1991
 
Mark  TL;  Coffey  RM;  McKusick  D  et al:  National Estimates of Expenditures for Mental Health Services and Substance Abuse Treatment, 1991–2001 .  Rockville, Md,  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005
 
Kubiak  SP;  Arfken  CL;  Gibson  ES:  Departments of corrections as purchasers of community-based treatment: a national study.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 36:420–427, 2009
 
Garfield  RL;  Lave  JR;  Donohue  JM:  Health reform and the scope of benefits for mental health and substance use disorder services.  Psychiatric Services 61:1081–1086, 2010
 
Thomas  CP;  Garnick  DW;  Horgan  WM  et al:  Advancing performance measures for use of medications in substance abuse treatment.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 40:35–43, 2011
 
Rieckmann  TR;  Kovas  AE;  Fussell  HE  et al:  Implementation of evidence-based practices for treatment of alcohol and drug disorders: the role of the state authority.  Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 36:407–419, 2009
 
Rieckmann  T;  Kovas  AE;  Rutkowski  BA:  Adoption of medications in substance abuse treatment: priorities and strategies of single state authorities.  Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 6(suppl):227–238, 2010
 
Heinrich  CJ;  Hill  CJ:  Role of state policies in the adoption of naltrexone for substance abuse treatment.  Health Services Research 43:951–970, 2008
 
Ducharme  LJ;  Abraham  AJ:  State policy influence on the early diffusion of buprenorphine in community treatment programs.  Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 3:17, 2008
 
Abraham  AJ;  Roman  PM:  Early adoption of injectable naltrexone for alcohol-use disorders: findings in the private-treatment sector.  Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 71:460–466, 2010
 
Kasarabada  ND;  Hser  YI;  Parker  L  et al:  A self-administered instrument for assessing therapeutic approaches of drug-user treatment counselors.  Substance Use and Misuse 36:273–299, 2001
 
Long  JS:  Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables .  Thousand Oaks, Calif,  Sage, 1997
 
Allison  PD:  Missing Data .  Thousand Oaks, Calif,  Sage, 2002
 
Allison  PD:  Missing data; in The SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology . Edited by Millsap  RE;  Maydeu-Olivares  A  Thousand Oaks, Calif,  Sage, 2009
 
Royston  P:  Multiple imputation of missing values: update.  Stata Journal 5:188–201, 2005
 
Royston  P:  Multiple imputation of missing values: update of ice.  Stata Journal 5:527–536, 2005
 
Ambler  G;  Omar  RZ;  Royston  P:  A comparison of imputation techniques for handling missing predictor values in a risk model with a binary outcome.  Statistical Methods in Medical Research 16:277–298, 2007
 
Barnard  J;  Rubin  DR:  Small sample degrees of freedom with multiple imputation.  Biometrika 86:948–955, 1999
 
Royston  P:  Multiple imputation of missing values.  Stata Journal 4:227–241, 2004
 
Berger  P;  Luckmann  T:  The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge .  Garden City, NY,  Anchor, 1966
 
Evans  AC;  Rieckmann  T;  Fitzgerald  MM  et al:  Teaching the NIATx model of process improvement as an evidence-based process.  Journal of Teaching in the Addictions 6:21–37, 2007
 
Roman  PM;  McCarty  D:  Assessment of Project Development in Cohort One of Advancing Recovery: A Multimethod Approach .  Athens, Ga,  University of Georgia, National Treatment Center Study, 2009. Available at www.uga.edu/ntcs/AREV.htm
 
Isett  KR;  Burnam  MA;  Coleman-Beattie  B  et al:  The state policy context of implementation issues for evidence-based practices in mental health.  Psychiatric Services 58:914–921, 2007
 
Magnabosco  JL:  Innovations in mental health services implementation: a report on state-level data from the US Evidence-Based Practices Project.  Implementation Science 1:13, 2006
 
Isett  KR;  Burnam  MA;  Coleman-Beattie  B  et al:  The role of state mental health authorities in managing change for the implementation of evidence-based practices.  Community Mental Health Journal 44:195–211, 2008
 
Rinaldo  D:  50-State Table: Medicaid Financing of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opiate Addiction .  Washington, DC,  National Conference of State Legislatures, 2008. Available at www.ncsl.org/IssuesResearch/Health/MATOpiate50StateTableMedicaid/tabid/14144/Default.aspx
 
References Container
+
+

CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Web of Science® Times Cited: 5

Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4th Edition > Chapter 33.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4th Edition > Chapter 33.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 47.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th Edition > Chapter 62.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 34.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
APA Guidelines
PubMed Articles