Dodes argues that every true addiction represents an attempt on the part of the patient to regain lost control. The addictive process—substance use, gambling, shoplifting—is used as a substitute for mastery over the unsolvable problem. The problem might be rooted in the present—perhaps in an unhappy marriage or career—but most often has its roots in an unresolved childhood conflict. The approach proposed, and exemplified in a number of useful case vignettes, is to develop a therapeutic alliance, to explore conflicted areas in the patient's life, to find the source of the sense of helplessness that the addictive process solves for the moment, and to help the person move on. Would Freud argue with this formulation?