Under the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) mandate, states are required to screen Medicaid-insured children for mental health and substance use disorders. This national study found that states vary considerably in their policies. Nearly half the states (23 in total) have not addressed behavioral health issues in their EPSDT screening tools at all. More states have screening tools that address mental health than substance use disorders. Most states have created their own screening tools, which suggests discomfort with or a lack of awareness of the standard tools available. Screening policy options to increase behavioral health screening rates are discussed.