Substance abuse treatment organizations are being expected to perform a growing number of administrative tasks, such as documenting care processes, conducting preauthorizations, and preparing ongoing and follow-up utilization reviews. Meanwhile, these organizations face increasing pressure to maximize efficiency. Christy Harris Lemak, Ph.D., and her associates studied the extent of this "administrative burden" on outpatient substance abuse treatment organizations and its implications for efficiency and productivity. Using data from the 1995 and 2000 waves of the National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey, they showed that administrative burden has increased in recent years and that both efficiency, as measured by operating expenses per therapy hour and salary and wages per therapy hour, and productivity, as measured by treatment sessions per full-time equivalent, are negatively affected by administrative burden. In addition, these researchers found evidence that substance abuse treatment organizations may be shifting resources away from patient care in response to increasing administrative burden (see page 705).