I assert then, in plain and distinct terms, that in a properly constructed building, with a sufficient number of suitable attendants, restraint is never necessary, never justifiable, and always injurious, in all cases of lunacy whatever" (1). Thus declared "house surgeon" Robert Gardiner Hill of the Lincoln Asylum in an oft-quoted public lecture delivered in Lincoln, England, in 1838. By this point he was immune to incredulous responses, which he caricatured as "What! Let loose a Madman! Why he will tear us to pieces!" For him, the proof of the proverbial English pudding was in the eating. In 1833, a total of 12,003 hours and 1,109 instances of restraint were recorded for 44 of 87 patients in the asylum at Lincoln (1). Five years later, with an expanded census of 148, no instances of restraint were recorded for the entire year.