0
Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

Articles   |    
Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation Among Parolees
Sung-Suk Violet Yu, Ph.D.; Hung-En Sung, Ph.D.; Jeff Mellow, Ph.D.; Amy Shlosberg, Ph.D.
Psychiatric Services 2014; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300062
View Author and Article Information

Dr. Yu, Dr. Sung, and Dr. Mellow are with the Department of Criminal Justice, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York City (e-mail: syu@jjay.cuny.edu). Dr. Shlosberg is with the Department of Social Sciences and History, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey.

Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychiatric Association

Abstract

Objective  This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among parolees and among persons who were not on parole.

Methods  Three years of data (2009 to 2011) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health were analyzed. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and violent behaviors of parolees (N=1,249) and nonparolees (N=114,033) were examined as indicators of need and as predictors of suicidal ideation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, using suicidal ideation as the dependent variable.

Results  Over the three years, the average prevalence of suicidal ideation among parolees (8.6%) was more than twice that among nonparolees (3.7%). Characteristics associated with decreased suicidal ideation among nonparolees, such as being married, older, and employed, were not related to lower suicidal ideation among parolees. For parolees, having health insurance decreased the likelihood of suicidal ideation by 50%. Parolees who received a past-year prescription for a mood disorder did not have higher rates of suicidal ideation, although this variable was associated with higher suicidal ideation among nonparolees. Parolees were significantly more likely than nonparolees to rate their health as poor (4.1% versus 2.6%).

Conclusions  Results indicated that parolees have more life stressors and that providing them with access to health care might lower suicidal ideation. Because parolees were more likely to rate their health as poor, providing access to medical care may improve their quality of life and their chance of successful return to the community.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Anchor for Jump
Table 1NSDUH respondents who reported past-year suicidal ideation, by parole statusa
Table Footer Note

a Weighted data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)

Anchor for Jump
Table 2Characteristics of NSDUH respondents, by parole statusa
Table Footer Note

a Weighted data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2009–2011

Table Footer Note

b All chi square tests were significant (p<.001; df=1).

Table Footer Note

c Marijuana, heroin, crack, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, or prescription psychotropic medications without a prescription

Anchor for Jump
Table 3Multivariate logistic regression analysis of predictors of suicidal ideation among NSDUH respondents, by parole statusa
Table Footer Note

a Unweighted data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2009–2011. Cox and Snell R2: parolees, R2=.14; nonparolees, R2=.10; Nagelkerke R2: parolees, R2=.32; nonparolees, R2=.30

Table Footer Note

b Marijuana, heroin, crack, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, or prescription psychotropic medications without a prescription

Table Footer Note

c Dichotomous variables (reference group: no or none)

+

References

 Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years—United States, 2008–2009 .  Atlanta,  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
 
Mumola  C:  Suicide and Homicide in State Prisons and Local Jails: Special Report .  Washington, DC,  US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2005
 
Bernstein  D:  Inmate Mortality Report: 2007–2010 .  Albany,  State of New York Department of Corrections and Community Supervision, 2011
 
Kubzansky  LD;  Subramanian  SV;  Kawachi  I  et al:  Neighborhood contextual influences on depressive symptoms in the elderly.  American Journal of Epidemiology 162:253–260, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Jenkins  R;  Bhugra  D;  Meltzer  H  et al:  Psychiatric and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in prisons.  Psychological Medicine 35:257–269, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Sattar  G:  The death of offenders in England and Wales.  Crisis 24:17–23, 2003
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Patterson  EJ:  The dose-response of time served in prison on mortality: New York State, 1989–2003.  American Journal of Public Health 103:523–528, 2013
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kariminia  A;  Butler  T;  Corben  S  et al:  Extreme cause-specific mortality in a cohort of adult prisoners—1988 to 2002: a data-linkage study.  International Journal of Epidemiology 36:310–316, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Joukamaa  M:  The mortality of released Finnish prisoners; a 7 year follow-up study of the WATTU project.  Forensic Science International 96:11–19, 1998
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Hunt  IM;  Kapur  N;  Webb  R  et al:  Suicide in recently discharged psychiatric patients: a case-control study.  Psychological Medicine 39:443–449, 2009
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Pratt  D;  Piper  M;  Appleby  L  et al:  Suicide in recently released prisoners: a population-based cohort study.  Lancet 368:119–123, 2006
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Fruehwald  S;  Matschnig  T;  Koenig  F  et al:  Suicide in custody: case-control study.  British Journal of Psychiatry 185:494–498, 2004
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Duberstein  PR;  Conwell  Y;  Conner  KR  et al:  Suicide at 50 years of age and older: perceived physical illness, family discord and financial strain.  Psychological Medicine 34:137–146, 2004
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Haw  C;  Hawton  K:  Living alone and deliberate self-harm: a case-control study of characteristics and risk factors.  Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 46:1115–1125, 2011
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Way  BB;  Miraglia  R;  Sawyer  DA  et al:  Factors related to suicide in New York state prisons.  International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 28:207–221, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Hayes LM: National Study of Jail Suicide: 20 Years Later. Washington, DC, National Institute of Corrections, National Center on Institutions and Alternatives, 2010
 
Patterson  RF;  Hughes  K:  Review of completed suicides in the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, 1999 to 2004.  Psychiatric Services 59:676–682, 2008
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Daniel  AE;  Fleming  J:  Suicides in a state correctional system, 1992–2002: a review.  Journal of Correctional Health Care 12:24–35, 2006
[CrossRef]
 
Nock  MK;  Hwang  I;  Sampson  NA  et al:  Mental disorders, comorbidity and suicidal behavior: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.  Molecular Psychiatry 15:868–876, 2010
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Nock  MK;  Borges  G;  Bromet  EJ  et al:  Cross-national prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation, plans and attempts.  British Journal of Psychiatry 192:98–105, 2008
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Phillips  MR;  Yang  G;  Li  S  et al:  Suicide and the unique prevalence pattern of schizophrenia in mainland China: a retrospective observational study.  Lancet 364:1062–1068, 2004
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Shaw  J;  Baker  D;  Hunt  IM  et al:  Suicide by prisoners: national clinical survey.  British Journal of Psychiatry 184:263–267, 2004
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Binswanger  IA;  Stern  MF;  Deyo  RA  et al:  Release from prison—a high risk of death for former inmates.  New England Journal of Medicine 356:157–165, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Rosen  DL;  Schoenbach  VJ;  Wohl  DA:  All-cause and cause-specific mortality among men released from state prison, 1980–2005.  American Journal of Public Health 98:2278–2284, 2008
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Petersilia  J:  When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry .  New York,  Oxford University Press, 2003
 
Fitzpatrick  KM;  Irwin  J;  Lagory  M  et al:  Just thinking about it: social capital and suicide ideation among homeless persons.  Journal of Health Psychology 12:750–760, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Gordek  H;  Folsom  R:  2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Sampling Error Report .  Rockville, Md,  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012
 
Morton  KB;  Martin  PC;  Shook-Sa  BE  et al:  2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Sample Design Report .  Rockville, Md,  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012
 
Hahs-Vaughn  DL:  A primer for using and understanding weights with national datasets.  Journal of Experimental Education 73:221–248, 2005
[CrossRef]
 
Westlake  M;  Chen  P;  Gordek  H:  2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Questionnaire Dwelling Unit-Level and Person Pair-Level Sampling Weight Calibration .  Rockville, Md,  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013
 
Heerwegh  D:  Mode Differences Between Face-to-Face and Web Surveys: An Experimental Investigation of Data Quality and Social Desirability Effects.  International Journal of Public Opinion Research 21:111–121, 2009
[CrossRef]
 
Noonan  ME;  Carson  EA:  Prison and jail deaths; in  Custody, 2000–2009: Statistical Tables .  Washington, DC,  Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011
 
Spaulding  AC;  Seals  RM;  McCallum  VA  et al:  Prisoner survival inside and outside of the institution: implications for health-care planning.  American Journal of Epidemiology 173:479–487, 2011
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Baicker  K;  Taubman  SL;  Allen  HL  et al:  The Oregon experiment: effects of Medicaid on clinical outcomes.  New England Journal of Medicine 368:1713–1722, 2013
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kroner  DG;  Kang  T;  Mills  JF  et al:  Reliabilities, validities, and cutoff scores of the depression hopelessness suicide screening form among women offenders.  Criminal Justice and Behavior 38:310–316, 2011
[CrossRef]
 
Ruiz  MA;  Douglas  KS;  Edens  JF  et al:  Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: implications for risk assessment.  Psychological Assessment 24:77–87, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Jenson  JM;  Howard  MO:  Hallucinogen use among juvenile probationers: prevalence and characteristics.  Criminal Justice and Behavior 26:357–372, 1999
[CrossRef]
 
Sorenson  SB;  Vittes  KA:  Mental health and firearms in community-based surveys: implications for suicide prevention.  Evaluation Review 32:239–256, 2008
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Sabbatine  R:  An “extended care” community corrections model for seriously mentally ill offenders.  Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 45:55–57, 2007
[CrossRef]
 
Fruehwald  S;  Frottier  P;  Matschnig  T  et al:  The relevance of suicidal behaviour in jail and prison suicides.  European Psychiatry 18:161–165, 2003
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Perry  AE;  Marandos  R;  Coulton  S  et al:  Screening tools assessing risk of suicide and self-harm in adult offenders: a systematic review.  International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 54:803–828, 2010
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Solomon  AL;  Osborne  J;  Winterfield  L  et al:  Putting Public Safety First: 13 Parole Supervision Strategies to Enhance Reentry Outcomes .  Washington, DC,  Urban Institute, 2008
 
Seiter  RP;  West  AD:  Supervision styles in probation and parole.  Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 38:57–75, 2003
[CrossRef]
 
West  AD;  Seiter  RP:  Social worker or cop? Measuring the supervision styles of probation and parole officers in Kentucky and Missouri.  Journal of Criminal Justice 27:27–57, 2004
 
References Container
+
+

CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 43.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 1.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 53.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 53.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
Read more at Psychiatric News >>
APA Guidelines