As full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014 approaches, researchers are analyzing past data in an effort to reduce uncertainty among program administrators and providers, as indicated by two studies in this month’s issue. The ACA is expected to cause shifts in funding for specialty mental health and substance abuse treatment. To provide a baseline for understanding future changes, Katharine R. Levit, B.A., and colleagues analyzed 1986 and 2005 data on funding sources for specialty behavioral health care, including out-of-pocket payments, private insurance, and public funding. They documented substantial changes for hospital-based care, office-based providers, and specialty treatment centers. With ACA’s full implementation, spending will likely increase under private insurance and Medicaid. Parity in private plans will also push a larger share of payments to office-based professionals from out-of-pocket payments to private insurance, the authors conclude (page 512). In states that opt to expand Medicaid, many low-income individuals will gain access to treatment. To assess unmet need for substance abuse treatment among adults expected to be income eligible for Medicaid in 2014—household income less than 138% of the poverty level—Susan H. Busch, Ph.D., and colleagues analyzed data from two groups of respondents to the 2008 and 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: current low-income Medicaid enrollees and currently uninsured individuals who will become Medicaid eligible. The rate of substance use disorders was significantly higher in the latter group (14.6% versus 11.5%). The findings suggest that Medicaid expansion will reduce unmet need for substance abuse treatment, the authors conclude (page 520).