Several examples in U.S. policy history demonstrate the complex and often contrasting outcomes that occur after enactment of laws that ban certain practices. Perhaps most famous is the amendment to the U.S. Constitution in place from 1920 to 1933 that banned the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol. This act, known as Prohibition, was controversial from the very beginning, and subsequent reports highlight the complex and competing issues during the pre-Prohibition and Prohibition eras. Temperance groups argued that alcohol sales promoted alcohol abuse, addiction, and deterioration of American families. Some religious groups identified alcohol use as a moral flaw. Politicians in the 1916 presidential elections were reluctant to alienate their political base on either side of the issue and chose not to address the topic directly. Physicians of the era often prescribed treatments that contained alcohol, and some medical professional societies lobbied for Prohibition's repeal. In addition, some have suggested that bias against immigrants was a prominent undertone in mainstream, U.S. temperance group efforts, mainly from the Anglo-Saxon population. Although Prohibition reduced alcohol use, positive social and health effects were overshadowed by a rise in crime and corruption. After intense controversy and public response to obvious and growing negative effects, Prohibition was repealed. It is generally acknowledged to have been a policy failure.