The 144 articles that used the terms out of the medical context were more stigmatizing. Sixty-nine (48%) used the terms literally, and 75 (52%) used them metaphorically. Literal uses were noted in 37 fiction reviews, 14 common and inaccurate descriptions of schizophrenia, seven pejorative labels, and four comic expressions. Metaphorical meanings of these terms referred to contradiction, incoherence, splitting or multiplicity, oscillation, lack of reality, obsession, withdrawal, indecision, aggression, authoritarianism, peculiarity, intermediate state, creativity, transformation, and boldness. Approximately 80% of the metaphors (60 of 75) had a negative connotation.