Because Catholics constitute a quarter of the U.S. population and represent the largest single religious denomination in the country, we conducted an online survey of Catholic priests in North Carolina to better understand how comfortable and capable they are with identifying and responding to individuals with mental illness. We also wanted to understand the importance that priests place on a shared worldview with providers. A 16-question survey was distributed to all Catholic priests (approximately 300) in North Carolina via diocesan Listservs. It included a questionnaire eliciting demographic information (age, years as a priest, level of mental health training, and parish setting) and information about the respondent's comfort level with identifying and responding to mental illness. Four vignettes described cases of mania, major depression, domestic abuse, and moderate alcohol use. Respondents chose to handle cases themselves or refer to a fellow priest, family or friends, a mental health professional, a primary care physician, or other. Data were collected between October and November 2011. The study was granted exemption by the institutional review board of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.