Forty-four states have statutes allowing involuntary outpatient commitment of people with mental illness. With "Kendra's Law" in 1999, New York State undertook its own approach—assisted outpatient treatment (AOT). In 2005 when the State Legislature reauthorized the law for another five years, it made renewal contingent on an evaluation of the AOT program, largely because of fierce ongoing debate about its effectiveness as well as it costs—in terms not only of public resources but also of the liberty of consumers. This month's issue features a special section of five reports of key findings from that evaluation, which was conducted by researchers at Duke University and Policy Research Associates, Inc. Marvin S. Swartz, M.D., one of the a principal investigators and an Editorial Board member of Psychiatric Services, served as guest editor of the section, which begins with an overview by Dr. Swartz (page 967). The first report describes notable regional differences in AOT implementation in various regions of New York, which raise questions about the fairness of the law's application (page 970). The second study, which examined a range of outcomes using several data sources, found that consumers under an AOT order had lower rates of hospitalization and shorter stays and were more likely to possess an adequate supply of medication and to engage in case management services than before the court order (page 976). The evaluators also examined whether AOT has longer-term outcomes—after the court order is lifted. The third article describes findings of sustained improvements in medication possession and hospitalization, especially for persons whose former court order was kept in place for more than six months (page 982). Because the law gave AOT consumers privileged access to services, a critical concern was whether voluntary service recipients were crowded out. The fourth study reported here provided an answer: initially yes, but after three years, the increased service capacity benefited all consumers (page 988). The fifth article presents findings of reduced likelihood of arrest among AOT recipients (page 996). In a related article, not included in the special section, findings of regional differences in medication possession after implementation of AOT are reported (page 1000). In a Taking Issue commentary on the special section articles, Annette Christy, Ph.D., points out the importance of context in policy implementation and research (page 955).