Most justice-involved youths affected by traumatic childhood experiences: The Justice Policy Institute released a 15-page brief that compiles research findings on the relationship between childhood trauma and justice system involvement for youths. According to Healing Invisible Wounds: Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense, of the more than 93,000 children who are currently incarcerated in the United States, between 75% and 93% have had at least one traumatic experience, including sexual abuse, war, community violence, neglect, and maltreatment. The research brief notes that although it is important to hold youths accountable if they engage in delinquent behavior, it is critical that trauma exposure be considered in placement decisions, because youths who receive treatment in the community have better outcomes. Researchers have found that youths who suffer trauma are more likely to develop life-long psychiatric conditions, including personality disorders, conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety, substance use disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Traumatized youths can experience developmental delays, decreased cognitive abilities, and learning disabilities, with school dropout and expulsion rates nearly three times as high as peers. As detailed in the research brief, currently the justice system does not meet the needs of traumatized youths and may increase trauma through its use of incarceration. Thousands of youths are incarcerated each year, and few are screened for trauma-related symptoms or provided trauma-informed care. Experts advocating for system reforms that address the unique needs of trauma-affected children say that long-term strategies to treat rather than incarcerate are needed to curb the cycle of justice system involvement. The research brief concludes with recommendations for improvements in six areas. A copy of the brief is available at www.justicepolicy.org.