This reanalysis was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) National Center for PTSD and the VA Palo Alto Health Care System. The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The original needs assessment survey was funded by an award from the New York City Department of Education (NYC DOE) to Applied Research and Consulting, L.L.C. (Dr. Cohen, contract investigator). The original study was a collaboration among Applied Research and Consulting, the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University-New York State Psychiatric Institute (Cristina Hoven, Dr.P.H., principal investigator), and the NYC DOE. Special thanks go to our collaborators at Turnaround for Children, Inc. (Pamela Cantor, M.D.); Columbia University-New York Psychiatric Institute (Cristina Hoven, Dr.P.H., Cristiane Duarte, Ph.D., M.P.H., Christopher P. Lucas, M.D., Ping Wu, Ph.D., Donald Mandell, Ph.D., M.P.H., Renee Goodwin, Ph.D., M.P.H., Bin Fan, M.D., George Musa, M.S., Larry Aber, Ph.D., Patricia Cohen, Ph.D., Ezra Susser, M.D., Dr.P.H., Judith Wicks, B.A., Andrea Versenyi, B.A., Barbara P. Aaron, B.A., Henian Chen, M.D., Mark Davies, M.P.H., Steven Greenwald, Ph.D., and Patricia Zybert, Ph.D.); Applied Research and Consulting (Nellie Gregorian, M.P.A., Chris Bumcrot, B.A., and Victoria Francis, M.A.); the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Bradley Woodruff, M.D., M.P.H., and Victor Balaban, Ph.D.); the National Center for Child Traumatic Stress, University of California, Los Angeles (Robert Pynoos, M.D., M.P.H., Alan Steinberg, Ph.D., and William Saltzman, Ph.D.); and Steven Marans, Ph.D., Elissa Brown, Ph.D., Claude Chemtob, Ph.D., and Betty Pfefferbaum, M.D. This study could not have succeeded without the leadership of Francine Goldstein, M.A., and the participation of Vincent Giordano, M.S., Linda Wernikoff, M.A., all from the NYC DOE, as well as the superintendents, principals, teachers, and, most of all, the students from New York City.
The authors report no competing interests.