The expert panel suggested "practical and achievable" steps for addressing these specific reimbursement barriers and others. The steps, which are summarized in Chapter 6, fall into four categories: clarification; collaboration; education and technical assistance; and approval, authorization, and support of additional services. The panel's most commonly expressed recommendation was to clarify policies, definitions, and allowable services and broadly disseminate these clarifications to payers and providers. The panel also called for targeted collaboration of federal and state agencies and national organizations, not only to clarify current policies but also to change them. For example, the panel proposed a work project to encourage primary care settings to institute collaborative care models by establishing core competencies, service definitions, and reimbursement codes; the project would be jointly staffed by SAMHSA, HRSA, CMS, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.