Four articles in this issue focus on persons with serious mental illness who become involved with the criminal justice system. In the lead article J. Steven Lamberti, M.D., presents a conceptual framework for understanding and preventing criminal recidivism in this population. The framework highlights risk variables related to the individual and the service system variables and emphasizes nonadherence as a mediator between modifiable risk variables and recidivism (page 773). Another framework, this one for improving outcomes of encounters between police and people with mental illness, is described by Amy C. Watson, Ph.D., and Beth Angell, PhD., M.S.S.W. The framework is based on procedural justice theory, which emphasizes fair treatment and the opportunity to be heard (page 787). In another article, H. Richard Lamb, M.D., and his colleagues present the results of an examination of the backgrounds of 104 male inmates in an urban county jail. Of the 78 who had a severe mental illness, virtually all had a history of nonadherence and prior arrests, and three-quarters required inpatient care or its equivalent during their current jail stay (page 782). In the fourth article, Joseph P. Morrissey, Ph.D., and coauthors examined criminal recidivism for a year after jail release among more than 7,600 persons with severe mental illness. Having Medicaid benefits at release was associated with a reduction in subsequent detentions (page 794). In a related Taking Issue commentary, Marvin S. Swartz, M.D., discusses mandated outpatient treatment and its role in preventing violence, such as the April shootings at Virginia Tech (page 737).