The only countermeasures available early in an outbreak of a new infectious disease are behavioral interventions, such as quarantine, hygiene, and isolation. Even in the hospital, supportive care may be all that is offered. Health care providers are faced with exposure to a life-threatening illness for which there is little protection or treatment and which can threaten their own lives as well those of their families. In the worst situations an outbreak can result in disastrous reactions. In 1994 in Surat, India, 80 percent of the private physicians fled the city during an outbreak of Yersinia pestis (plague), which killed 56 people. In the other extreme, we often see health care workers protecting the community and their loved ones at great cost to themselves.