From July 2000 to December 2002 a total of 1,602 patients were treated in the general psychiatry unit and 308 patients were treated in the clinical research unit. On these two units, a majority of the patients had diagnoses of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders (336 patients, or 21 percent, on the general unit; 160 patients, or 52 percent, on the research unit) or mood disorders (1,266 patients, or 79 percent, on the general unit; 132 patients, or 43 percent, on the research unit). Approximately half were white (929 patients, or 58 percent, on the general unit; 166 patients, or 54 percent, on the research unit), about half were female (913 patients, or 57 percent, on the general unit; 142 patients, or 46 percent, on the research unit); most were unemployed (1,298 patients, or 81 percent, on the general unit; 212 patients, or 69 percent, on the research unit), most had never been married (833 patients, or 52 percent, on the general unit; 212 patients, or 69 percent, on the research unit), and a majority had prescriptions for medications at the time of admission (1,202 patients, or 75 percent, on the general unit; 259 patients, or 84 percent, on the research unit).
A total of 227 patients were treated in the adolescent psychiatry unit from July 2000 to December 2002. On the adolescent unit, 84 patients (37 percent) had a diagnosis of major depression or a depressive disorder, 57 (25 percent) had an adjustment disorder, 34 (15 percent) had a conduct disorder, 16 (7 percent) had schizophrenia or a psychotic disorder, and 36 (16 percent) had another diagnosis. A total of 141 patients (62 percent) were African American, 150 (66 percent) were female, and 141 (62 percent) had prescriptions for medications.
As shown in t1, the adolescent unit experienced a 48 percent decrease in the restraint rate one quarter after training occurred and a 98 percent decrease two quarters after the training. The rate remained low throughout the final two quarters of the year. The general psychiatry unit experienced an 85 percent decrease in restraint rate one quarter after the training and a 99 percent decrease two quarters after the training. Once again the rate remained low during the final two quarters of the evaluation period. The clinical research unit experienced a 51 percent decrease in the restraint rate in the quarter after crisis management training and a 49 percent decrease in the quarter after nonviolent crisis intervention training. In the two quarters after both trainings had occurred, the rate declined by 98 percent and remained low (at zero) for the final two quarters. Before the restraint reduction program was implemented, restraint rates on the adolescent unit and clinical research units had been climbing and the general psychiatry unit's rates had fluctuated considerably. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a significant effect of training (F=8.31, df=1, 26, p<.01) but no significant difference between units in the effect of training.