J. Reid Meloy "suggest[s] a brief protocol for the assessment of threatening communications: (1) Is the threatening communication primarily instrumental or expressive? (2) If other psychological data are available, does the threat illuminate the current state of mind of the threatener? (3) Does the threatener demographically and clinically fit within any of the known samples of threateners, thereby providing frequency data for true and false positives? (4) What has been the threatener's behavior following threats in the past? (5) What are the stakes (consequences) if the threat is carried out? (6) Given the totality of known information about the case, should the threatening communication change the risk management strategy, and, if so, in what way?"