By contrast, a chapter focusing specifically on the combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is helpful for all clinicians, whether or not they can prescribe medication. It begins with a solid conceptual discussion of temperament and character and the concomitant roles of biology and environment in personality development as a framework for understanding the role of combined treatment. Specific medication recommendations are well grounded in peer-reviewed clinical studies. The chapter provides a well-developed examination of the issues involved in the choice of the one-provider or the two-provider model when medication and psychotherapy are combined. Although at times the discussion reveals a bias toward psychiatrists, it is generally evenhanded and thoughtful in its approach to different clinical disciplines, and it discusses transference, risk management and liability, and the need for role clarity among all providers.