Utilization of preventive medical care was compared for two low-income groups—47 women with serious mental illness in an urban mental health center and 17 women patients at a primary care center. Appropriate preventive care was defined as at least one physical examination, a Pap test, and a breast examination in the past five years and a mammogram if the patient was over age 40. Receipt of preventive care by women in both settings was similar. Histories of physical and sexual abuse were prevalent in both groups, and a history of abuse was associated with less frequent receipt of preventive care. Results indicate that procedures to identify and provide services to women with abuse histories should be further developed.