All data (2001–2012) were from the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database, which includes claims of employed individuals and dependents from all U.S. Census divisions. Data were weighted to be nationally representative of individuals with employer-sponsored insurance, 48% of the U.S. population in 2012 (3). The denominator was number of claims that met these criteria: discharge from an inpatient acute or residential facility, age 13–64, primary ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis of drug or alcohol abuse or dependence, discharge date between January 1 and December 1 (to allow for 30 days of December follow-up), discharge status was not death or transfer to another facility, and continued plan enrollment for 30 days after discharge. The numerator was number of denominator stays for which there was an outpatient visit related to a substance use disorder within 30 days, defined by a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis or code pertaining to mental health or substance abuse. We captured both types of diagnoses because substance use disorders are often recorded as mental disorders.