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Brief Reports   |    
Foster Care, Externalizing Disorders, and Antipsychotic Use Among Medicaid-Enrolled Youths
Lauren Vanderwerker, Ph.D.; Ayse Akincigil, Ph.D.; Mark Olfson, M.D., M.P.H.; Tobias Gerhard, Ph.D.; Sheree Neese-Todd, M.A.; Stephen Crystal, Ph.D.
Psychiatric Services 2014; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300455
View Author and Article Information

When this work was done Dr. Vanderwerker was with the Center for Health Services Research on Pharmacotherapy, Chronic Disease Management, and Outcomes, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, where Dr. Akincigil, Dr. Gerhard, and Dr. Crystal are on the faculty and Ms. Neese-Todd is on the research staff. Dr. Akicigil and Dr. Crystal are also with the School of Social Work and Dr. Gerhard is with the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University. Dr. Olfson is with the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York City. Dr. Vanderwerker is now with The Hilltop Institute, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore (e-mail: lvanderwerker@hilltop.umbc.edu).

Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychiatric Association

Abstract

Objectives  The authors investigated the extent to which clinical diagnoses of externalizing disorders explain higher rates of antipsychotic use by foster care youths.

Methods  Medicaid claims data from 44 states for 2009 for youths in foster care (N=301,894) and those not in foster care (N=5,092,574) were analyzed, excluding those with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, and major depressive disorder. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between foster care, externalizing disorders, and antipsychotic use.

Results  Foster care youths had higher rates of externalizing disorders than the comparison group (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 17.3% versus 6.5%; disruptive behavior disorder, 7.2% versus 2.5%; conduct disorder, 2.3% versus .5%) and greater antipsychotic use (7.4% versus 1.4%). Foster care remained a significant predictor of antipsychotic use after control for demographic and diagnostic covariates, including externalizing disorders (adjusted odds ratio=2.59, 95% confidence interval=2.54–2.63).

Conclusions  High rates of externalizing disorder diagnoses only partially explained elevated levels of antipsychotic use in this vulnerable population.

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Table 1Multivariate associations between antipsychotic use, foster care status, and characteristics of 5,394,468 Medicaid-enrolled youths
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