The courts, he points out, "must evaluate the stigmatizing effect of an action, the conformity of behavior with social norms, the meaning of symbols, and the consequences of ostracism." Does the stigmatizing of AIDS patients or the publication of a sex offender's record as required by Megan's Law enhance social norms that constitute public order? Does affirmative action enhance the stigma of belonging to a minority group or weaken such stigma? "Modern social welfare and bankruptcy legislation," he notes, "was intended to eliminate the stigma against people who are poor and cannot pay their debts, . . . yet earlier versions of such legislation were intended to strengthen the stigma. Expungement laws, which erase criminal convictions from offenders' records, reduce the stigma of the ex-convict."