The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were quickly followed by predictions of an epidemic of new cases of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. It was unclear how many people had received enough traumatic exposure to increase their risk of these disorders. Had a New Yorker who saw the planes hitting the twin towers on television "experienced, witnessed, or confronted" a traumatic event, as described in DSM-IV? But estimates of the number of new cases, extrapolated from the Oklahoma City bombing and other disasters, surpassed 100,000. Subsequent news reports indicated a surge in mental health visits and in the consumption of junk food, cigarettes, and alcohol.