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Articles   |    
Police Encounters Involving Citizens With Mental Illness: Use of Resources and Outcomes
Yanick Charette, M.Sc.; Anne G. Crocker, Ph.D.; Isabelle Billette, M.Sc.
Psychiatric Services 2014; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300053
View Author and Article Information

Mr. Charette is with the School of Criminology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada (e-mail: yanick.charette@umontreal.ca). Dr. Crocker is with the Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal. Ms. Billette is with the Research and Planning Department, Montreal Police Service, Montreal.

Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychiatric Association

Abstract

Objective  Few studies have addressed use of resources in police interventions involving individuals with mental illness. The time police officers spend on interventions is a straightforward measure with significant administrative weight, given that it addresses human resource allocation. This study compared the characteristics of police interventions involving individuals with mental illness and a control sample of individuals without mental illness.

Methods  A total of 6,128 police interventions in Montreal, Québec, were analyzed by using a retrospective analysis of police intervention logs from three days in 2006. Interventions involving citizens with (N=272) and without (N=5,856) mental illness were compared by reason for the intervention, the use of arrest, and the use of police resources.

Results  Police interventions involving individuals with mental illness were less likely than those involving individuals without mental illness to be related to more severe offenses. However, interventions for minor offenses were more likely to lead to arrest when they involved citizens with mental illness. Interventions for reasons of equal severity were twice as likely to lead to arrest if the citizen involved had a mental illness. After controlling for the use of arrest and the severity of the situation, the analysis showed that police interventions involving individuals with mental illness used 87% more resources than interventions involving individuals without mental illness.

Conclusions  Future studies using administrative police data sets could investigate the use of resources and division of costs involved in new programs or partnerships to better address the interface of criminal justice and mental health care.

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Table 1Reason for police interventions involving individuals with or without a mental illness
Table Footer Note

b df=5; Cramèr’s V was used because of the number of degree of freedom.

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Table 2Reason for police interventions leading to arrest among individuals with and without mental illness
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Table 3Use of police time during interventions involving individuals with and without mental illness, in minutesa
Table Footer Note

a Time is reported as a geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD), which can be interpreted on a regular time scale (minutes).

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