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Assessing the Evidence Base Series   |    
Supported Employment: Assessing the Evidence
Tina Marshall, Ph.D.; Richard W. Goldberg, Ph.D.; Lisa Braude, Ph.D.; Richard H. Dougherty, Ph.D.; Allen S. Daniels, Ed.D.; Sushmita Shoma Ghose, Ph.D.; Preethy George, Ph.D.; Miriam E. Delphin-Rittmon, Ph.D.
Psychiatric Services 2014; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300262
View Author and Article Information

Dr. Marshall, Dr. Daniels, Dr. Ghose, and Dr. George are with Westat, Rockville, Maryland. Dr. Goldberg is with the Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Capitol Health Care Network, Baltimore. Dr. Braude and Dr. Dougherty are with DMA Health Strategies, Lexington, Massachusetts. Dr. Delphin-Rittmon is with the Office of Policy, Planning, and Innovation, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Rockville. Send correspondence to Dr. George (e-mail: preethygeorge@westat.com). This article is part of a series of literature reviews that will be published in Psychiatric Services over the next several months. The reviews were commissioned by SAMHSA through a contract with Truven Health Analytics and were conducted by experts in each topic area, who wrote the reviews along with authors from Truven Health Analytics, Westat, DMA Health Strategies, and SAMHSA. Each article in the series was peer reviewed by a special panel of Psychiatric Services reviewers.

Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychiatric Association

Objective  Supported employment is a direct service with multiple components designed to help adults with mental disorders or co-occurring mental and substance use disorders choose, acquire, and maintain competitive employment. This article describes supported employment and assesses the evidence base for this service.

Methods  Authors reviewed meta-analyses, research reviews, and individual studies from 1995 through 2012. Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Authors chose from three levels of evidence (high, moderate, and low) based on benchmarks for the number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence for service effectiveness.

Results  The level of research evidence for supported employment was graded as high, based on 12 systematic reviews and 17 randomized controlled trials of the individual placement and support model. Supported employment consistently demonstrated positive outcomes for individuals with mental disorders, including higher rates of competitive employment, fewer days to the first competitive job, more hours and weeks worked, and higher wages. There was also strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of individual elements of the model.

Conclusions  Substantial evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of supported employment. Policy makers should consider including it as a covered service. Future research is needed for subgroups such as young adults, older adults, people with primary substance use disorders, and those from various cultural, racial, and ethnic backgrounds.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Supported employment is a well-defined and extensively researched approach to helping individuals with mental disorders obtain and maintain competitive employment. Despite estimates that up to 70% of adults with mental illness would like to work and approximately 60% can be successful at working when using supported employment services (1), one recent survey estimated that only 2% of people with serious mental illness receive any form of supported employment (2).

This article reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken as part of the Assessing the Evidence Base Series (see box on next page). For purposes of this series, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) describes supported employment as a direct service with multiple components. It aims to help adults with mental disorders or with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders choose, acquire, and maintain competitive employment. An emphasis is placed on consumer preference and rapid job search rather than on prolonged pre-employment preparation. Table 1 presents a definition and description of the service elements.

About the AEB Series 

The Assessing the Evidence Base (AEB) Series presents literature reviews for 14 commonly used, recovery-focused mental health and substance use services. Authors evaluated research articles and reviews specific to each service that were published from 1995 through 2012 or 2013. Each AEB Series article presents ratings of the strength of the evidence for the service, descriptions of service effectiveness, and recommendations for future implementation and research. The target audience includes state mental health and substance use program directors and their senior staff, Medicaid staff, other purchasers of health care services (for example, managed care organizations and commercial insurance), leaders in community health organizations, providers, consumers and family members, and others interested in the empirical evidence base for these services. The research was sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration to help inform decisions about which services should be covered in public and commercially funded plans. Details about the research methodology and bases for the conclusions are included in the introduction to the AEB Series (6).

 
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Table 1Description of supported employment

The objectives of this review were to describe the components of supported employment, rate the level of evidence (methodological quality) of existing studies of supported employment, and provide a concise summary of its overall effectiveness. The review was limited to adults with mental disorders or with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. We also examined the effectiveness of specific components of supported employment to assess the strength of the model, as well as the impact of supported employment in various geographic settings and for various populations.

For the purposes of this series, the definition of supported employment is drawn from the individual placement and support (IPS) model—the most well-defined and researched model of supported employment—and from evidence-based resources developed by SAMHSA (1). The primary goal of IPS supported employment is to help participants achieve competitive employment, which is defined as jobs paying at least minimum wage that are located in socially integrated community settings and that are held by consumers directly and not reserved for individuals with disabilities or held by provider agencies (1).

The IPS model includes the following key principles: services focusing on competitive employment; eligibility based on consumer choice (interest or desire) and not on traditional considerations of “work readiness” (for example, diagnosis and symptoms); rapid job search rather than lengthy pre-employment assessment, training, and counseling; integration of rehabilitation and mental health services, so that employment specialists participate regularly in clinical team planning; attention to consumer choice, so that services are based on consumer preferences rather than on provider judgments; time-unlimited and individualized follow-along support; systematic job development; and personalized benefits counseling. The integration of mental health services, the focus on rapid job search for competitive employment, and the provision of supports while on the job differentiates supported employment from traditional vocational or rehabilitative approaches.

Supported employment is also defined by the Supported Employment Fidelity Scale (3), which is often used to provide feedback, guide training, and monitor the extent to which programs are implementing the model as it was designed to be implemented. Research shows consistent, positive associations between the Supported Employment Fidelity Scale and competitive employment outcomes (4,5).

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Search strategy

We conducted a literature search of articles published from 1995 through 2012. We searched major databases: PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health), PsycINFO (American Psychological Association), Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. We also examined bibliographies of major reviews and meta-analyses. Search terms included supported employment, individual placement and support, IPS, and vocational rehabilitation.

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Inclusion and exclusion criteria

The following types of articles were included: randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, and single-group time-series design studies; review articles, such as meta-analyses and systematic reviews; U.S. and international studies in English; and studies that focused on supported employment for individuals with mental disorders or co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. Participants were adults age 18 years and older.

We excluded studies that were focused on populations with developmental disabilities or other health conditions and populations of children and adolescents. We also excluded studies focused on linking consumers with sheltered workshops or other employment models that were contrary to supported employment principles.

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Strength of the evidence

The methodology used to rate the strength of the evidence is described in detail in the introduction to this series (6). The research designs of the studies that met the inclusion criteria were examined. Three levels of evidence (high, moderate, and low) were used to indicate the overall research quality of the collection of studies. Ratings were based on predefined benchmarks that considered the number of studies and their methodological quality. In rare instances when the ratings were dissimilar, a consensus opinion was reached.

In general, high ratings indicate confidence in the reported outcomes and are based on three or more RCTs with adequate designs or two RCTs plus two quasi-experimental studies with adequate designs. Moderate ratings indicate that there is some adequate research to judge the service, although it is possible that future research could influence reported results. Moderate ratings are based on the following three options: two or more quasi-experimental studies with adequate design; one quasi-experimental study plus one RCT with adequate design; or at least two RCTs with some methodological weaknesses or at least three quasi-experimental studies with some methodological weaknesses. Low ratings indicate that research for this service is not adequate to draw evidence-based conclusions. Low ratings indicate that studies have nonexperimental designs, there are no RCTs, or there is no more than one adequately designed quasi-experimental study.

We accounted for other design factors that could increase or decrease the evidence rating, such as how the service, populations, and interventions were defined; use of statistical methods to account for baseline differences between experimental and comparison groups; identification of moderating or confounding variables with appropriate statistical controls; examination of attrition and follow-up; use of psychometrically sound measures; and indications of potential research bias.

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Effectiveness of the service

We described the effectiveness of the service—that is, how well the outcomes of the studies met the goals of supported employment. We compiled the findings for separate outcome measures and study populations, summarized the results, and noted differences across investigations. We considered the quality of the research design in our conclusions about the strength of the evidence and the effectiveness of the service. We also considered whether, based on the evidence, the practice should be recommended as a covered service in public and commercially funded plans.

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Level of evidence

Supported employment met rating criteria for the high level of evidence, which was assigned to services with three or more well-designed RCTs. We identified 12 systematic reviews (718). The reviews included 17 RCTs (1935) that compared the IPS model of supported employment to a control condition. Features of the RCTs and their findings are summarized in Table 2. In addition, one review presented findings from four studies that focused on conversion of day treatment programs to supported employment (15).

 
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Table 2Randomized controlled trials of the individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment included in the reviewa
Table Footer Note

a Studies are listed in chronological order.

Studies generally recruited adults who were interested in receiving supported employment in outpatient mental health settings. Supported employment is rarely funded by states for people with substance use disorders alone; most states use existing vocational education and training funds for people with substance use disorders alone. Across studies, participants met each state’s (or province’s) criteria for serious mental illness, which typically was defined as having a DSM-IV axis I diagnosis such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In almost all studies, participants were unemployed at the time of study admission. Many studies required participants to attend an average of two research information meetings, during which the project was explained before they gave consent to participate. Studies were conducted across a wide range of socioeconomic and cultural contexts.

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Effectiveness of the service

Supported employment consistently had better outcomes than traditional vocational rehabilitation approaches. The main outcome that was measured in all studies was rate of attainment of competitive employment among participants. A number of studies also examined wages earned, hours worked per week, time to first job, and job tenure. Some studies included nonvocational outcomes, such as drug and alcohol use, psychiatric symptoms, hospitalization, self-esteem, quality of life, social functioning, perception of well-being, self-efficacy, and poverty.

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Employment outcomes.

Participants receiving supported employment had significantly higher rates of competitive employment (7,9,13). Several systematic reviews that averaged the rates across studies found that the mean competitive employment rate was between 58% and 60% for those receiving supported employment, compared with 23%−24% for control conditions (8,9,13). Multisite studies, such as the Employment Intervention Demonstration Project (EIDP) (36) and the Mental Health Treatment study (24,37), found that supported employment participants were more likely to be competitively employed: 55% of intervention participants versus 34% of participants in control conditions and 52% of intervention versus 33% of control participants, respectively. Other employment outcomes that were significantly improved across RCTs for individuals receiving supported employment compared with those in control conditions included the number of hours worked, number of weeks worked per year, wages, and number of days to the first competitive job (7,8).

Research on the long-term effects of supported employment suggests that positive outcomes may be sustainable (3840). For example, one study reported that about half of those who participated continued to work competitively over three to five years (41). Additional findings suggest positive outcomes for up to 12 years; 71% of those who were reinterviewed 12 years after receiving supported employment (N=38) reported working for more than half of the follow-up years (41). These findings are considered preliminary because of the small number of studies, design limitations, and sample sizes (8).

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Nonvocational outcomes.

Current research has not established a significant relationship between supported employment and nonvocational outcomes. Eleven RCTs of IPS consistently found no effects on nonvocational outcomes (42). Secondary analysis of data from four RCTs of IPS suggested that competitive employment may be associated with greater improvement over time in symptom control, quality of life, self-esteem, and social functioning, compared with no employment (27,29,30,32,34,4346). Although the Mental Health Treatment Study found that supported employment participants had significantly improved mental health status, better quality of life, and reduced inpatient hospital use and psychiatric crisis visits, the supported employment model for this study was complemented by systematic medication management (24,37). Findings from the EIDP showed that extra income made a difference in quality of life, although earnings were not large enough to reduce poverty (47).

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Effectiveness of individual service components.

In addition to establishing the overall effectiveness of the supported employment model, some studies have focused on assessing the effectiveness of its individual elements. In his 2004 review, Bond (15) concluded that there is relatively strong evidence for the integration of vocational and mental health services, competitive employment, eligibility based on consumer choice, and rapid job search. For example, in the 2009 Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team study (7) and the EIDP (48), greater integration of mental health services and vocational services was associated with better outcomes. Other individual elements of supported employment that were associated with improved employment outcomes included job development and time-unlimited job support (47,49,50). However, the evidence suggests that the optimal level of job support fluctuates across time for each client (8).

Recent studies have also found support for the zero-exclusion criterion, which encourages all consumers to participate in supported employment regardless of current substance use, substance use background, or history with the criminal justice system. Findings indicated that substance use background was not associated with significant differences in employment outcomes (51). Although some evidence indicated that individuals with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders receiving supported employment had significantly better competitive work outcomes than those who received comparison vocational programs (52), other findings showed that individuals with co-occurring disorders had lower earnings and were less likely to work competitively than those without comorbid conditions (53).

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Specific populations.

In recent years, research has moved beyond establishing overall effectiveness for supported employment and is now focused on exploring effectiveness for distinct populations of service users. Some evidence indicates that supported employment is effective across various geographic settings (25,54) and age groups, including young, middle-aged, and older adults (55,56). The evidence regarding supported employment and other demographic characteristics is mixed. Studies from the EIDP indicated that although supported employment improved employment outcomes for all study participants compared with conventional vocational rehabilitation, characteristics such as work history, age, and race-ethnicity were predictors of employment outcomes. For example, white participants were more likely than participants from minority racial or ethnic groups to obtain competitive employment, whereas participants from minority groups were more likely to work more hours per month (57,58). Young adults were more likely to obtain competitive jobs than older adults, and Hispanic or Latino participants were half as likely as others to obtain competitive jobs (59). Other studies concluded that supported employment produces better competitive employment outcomes than alternative vocational programs, regardless of background demographic characteristics and clinical diagnosis (14,20,23,30,32). Some studies found work history to be the only significant demographic predictor of job acquisition (11,51).

This review found a high level of evidence for the effectiveness of supported employment (see box on this page). Multiple RCTs of the IPS model of supported employment have consistently demonstrated positive outcomes for individuals with mental disorders. The findings of higher rates of competitive employment, fewer days to the first competitive job, more hours and weeks worked, and higher wages provide strong support for the effectiveness of supported employment. On the basis of the evidence, policy makers should consider including the IPS model of supported employment as a covered service as part of the full spectrum of options that support recovery from mental and substance use disorders.

Evidence for the effectiveness of the individual placement and support model of supported employment: high 

Compared with control conditions, supported employment demonstrates consistent evidence for the following outcomes:

  • High rates of competitive employment

  • More hours worked

  • More weeks worked per year

  • Higher wages

  • Fewer days to the first competitive job

The gap between the number of individuals with mental disorders who would like to work and those with access to supported employment is significant. Expansion of the funding mechanisms for supported employment can reduce that gap. Policy makers, including payers (for example, state mental health and substance use directors, managed care companies, and county behavioral health administrators), must consider mechanisms that would promote supported employment when determining how best to incorporate it into a full continuum of care.

In addition to strong evidence for the overall effectiveness of supported employment, there is strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of individual elements of the model, such as integration of vocational and mental health services. More research is needed on other components of the model—such as the type and intensity of job support—for different subgroups of participants (for example, people of various cultural, racial, or ethnic backgrounds). Further investigation into how supported employment should be adapted for subgroups is also indicated.

Some studies have examined adaptations to the IPS model of supported employment, such as involving peers as specialists (6062) or adding other components, such as cognitive remediation (63,64), social skills training (33,65), and cognitive-behavioral therapy (66). There is substantial evidence that employment outcomes are better when there is greater fidelity to the supported employment model being used; however, more research is needed to determine whether adaptations are effective in improving outcomes for specific subgroups.

Supported employment is designed for adults, and this review excluded studies of adolescents. Adapting supported employment for adolescents of working age may yield important findings. Research suggests that adults with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders can use supported employment successfully to meet their goals; however, future work is warranted to tailor specific aspects of supported employment programs to the needs of those with co-occurring disorders. Further research is also needed to explore whether supported employment is effective for other populations, such as people with primary substance use disorders or traumatic brain injury (8).

Development of the Assessing the Evidence Base Series was supported by contracts HHSS283200700029I/HHSS28342002T, HHSS283200700006I/HHSS28342003T, and HHSS2832007000171/HHSS28300001T from 2010 through 2013 from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The authors acknowledge the contributions of Risa Fox, M.S., Suzanne Fields, M.S.W., and Kevin Malone, B.A., from SAMHSA; John O’Brien, M.A., from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Garrett Moran, Ph.D., from Westat; and John Easterday, Ph.D., Linda Lee, Ph.D., Rosanna Coffey, Ph.D., and Tami Mark, Ph.D., from Truven Health Analytics. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of SAMHSA.

The authors report no competing interests.

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Mueser  KT;  Campbell  K;  Drake  RE:  The effectiveness of supported employment in people with dual disorders.  Journal of Dual Diagnosis 7:90–102, 2011
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Cook  JA;  Razzano  LA;  Burke-Miller  JK  et al:  Effects of co-occurring disorders on employment outcomes in a multisite randomized study of supported employment for people with severe mental illness.  Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 44:837–849, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Haslett  WR;  Drake  RE;  Bond  GR  et al:  Individual placement and support: does rurality matter? American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation 14:237–244, 2011
[CrossRef]
 
Baksheev  GN;  Allott  K;  Jackson  HJ  et al:  Predictors of vocational recovery among young people with first-episode psychosis: findings from a randomized controlled trial.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 35:421–427, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Twamley  EW;  Vella  L;  Burton  CZ  et al:  The efficacy of supported employment for middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia.  Schizophrenia Research 135:100–104, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Burke-Miller  JK;  Cook  JA;  Grey  DD  et al:  Demographic characteristics and employment among people with severe mental illness in a multisite study.  Community Mental Health Journal 42:143–159, 2006
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Razzano  LA;  Cook  JA;  Burke-Miller  JK  et al:  Clinical factors associated with employment among people with severe mental illness: findings from the employment intervention demonstration program.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 193:705–713, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Burke-Miller  J;  Razzano  LA;  Grey  DD  et al:  Supported employment outcomes for transition age youth and young adults.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 35:171–179, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kaufmann  CL:  The Self Help Employment Center: some outcomes from the first year.  Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 18:145–162, 1995
[CrossRef]
 
Kern  RS;  Zarate  R;  Glynn  SM  et al:  A demonstration project involving peers as providers of evidence-based, supported employment services.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 36:99–107, 2013
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Swarbrick  M;  Bates  F;  Roberts  M:  Peer Employment Support (PES): a model created through collaboration between a peer-operated service and university.  Occupational Therapy in Mental Health 25:325–334, 2009
[CrossRef]
 
McGurk  SR;  Mueser  KT;  Feldman  K  et al:  Cognitive training for supported employment: 2–3 year outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.  American Journal of Psychiatry 164:437–441, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McGurk  SR;  Mueser  KT;  Pascaris  A:  Cognitive training and supported employment for persons with severe mental illness: one-year results from a randomized controlled trial.  Schizophrenia Bulletin 31:898–909, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Mueser  KT;  Aalto  S;  Becker  DR  et al:  The effectiveness of skills training for improving outcomes in supported employment.  Psychiatric Services 56:1254–1260, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Vauth  R;  Corrigan  PW;  Clauss  M  et al:  Cognitive strategies versus self-management skills as adjunct to vocational rehabilitation.  Schizophrenia Bulletin 31:55–66, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
References Container
Anchor for Jump
Table 1Description of supported employment
Anchor for Jump
Table 2Randomized controlled trials of the individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment included in the reviewa
Table Footer Note

a Studies are listed in chronological order.

+

References

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: Supported Employment: Building Your Program. DHHS pub no SMA-08-4364. Rockville, Md, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, 2009
 
2009 CMHS Uniform Reporting System Output Tables. Rockville, Md, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009. Available at www.samhsa.gov/dataoutcomes/urs/urs2009.aspx. Accessed Aug 6, 2013
 
Becker  DR:  Evidence-Based Supported Employment Fidelity Review Manual .   Lebanon, NH,  Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center, 2011
 
Bond  GR;  Becker  DR;  Drake  RE:  Measurement of fidelity of implementation of evidence-based practices: case example of the IPS Fidelity Scale.  Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 18:126–141, 2011
[CrossRef]
 
Bond  GR;  Peterson  AE;  Becker  DR  et al:  Validation of the revised Individual Placement and Support Fidelity Scale (IPS-25).  Psychiatric Services 63:758–763, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Dougherty RH, Lyman DR, George P, et al: Assessing the evidence base for behavioral health services: introduction to the series. Psychiatric Services, 2013; doi 10.1176/appi.ps.201300214
 
Dixon  LB;  Dickerson  F;  Bellack  AS  et al:  The 2009 schizophrenia PORT psychosocial treatment recommendations and summary statements.  Schizophrenia Bulletin 36:48–70, 2010
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Drake  RE;  Bond  GR;  Becker  DR:  Individual Placement and Support: An Evidence-Based Approach to Supported Employment .  New York,  Oxford University Press, 2012
 
Bond  GR;  Drake  RE;  Becker  DR:  Generalizability of the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment outside the US.  World Psychiatry 11:32–39, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Wang C, Sung C, Hiatt E, et al: Effectiveness of Supported Employment on Competitive Employment Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis. Presented at the National Council of Rehabilitation Educators, Los Angeles, April 6–8, 2011
 
Campbell  K;  Bond  GR;  Drake  RE:  Who benefits from supported employment: a meta-analytic study.  Schizophrenia Bulletin 37:370–380, 2011
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kinoshita  Y;  Furukawa  TA;  Kinoshita  K  et al:  Supported employment for adults with severe mental illness.  Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 9:CD008297, 2013
[PubMed]
 
Bond  GR;  Drake  RE;  Becker  DR:  An update on randomized controlled trials of evidence-based supported employment.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 31:280–290, 2008
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Twamley  EW;  Jeste  DV;  Lehman  AF:  Vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a literature review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 191:515–523, 2003
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Bond  GR:  Supported employment: evidence for an evidence-based practice.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 27:345–359, 2004
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Crowther  RE;  Marshall  M;  Bond  GR  et al:  Helping people with severe mental illness to obtain work: systematic review.  British Medical Journal 322:204–208, 2001
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Bond  GR;  Becker  DR;  Drake  RE  et al:  Implementing supported employment as an evidence-based practice.  Psychiatric Services 52:313–322, 2001
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Bond  GR;  Drake  RE;  Mueser  KT  et al:  An update on supported employment for people with severe mental illness.  Psychiatric Services 48:335–346, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Burns  T;  Catty  J;  Becker  T  et al; EQOLISE Group:  The effectiveness of supported employment for people with severe mental illness: a randomised controlled trial.  Lancet 370:1146–1152, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Bond  GR;  Salyers  MP;  Dincin  J  et al:  A randomized controlled trial comparing two vocational models for persons with severe mental illness.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 75:968–982, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Davis  LL;  Leon  AC;  Toscano  R  et al:  A randomized controlled trial of supported employment among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.  Psychiatric Services 63:464–470, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Drake  RE;  McHugo  GJ;  Becker  DR  et al:  The New Hampshire study of supported employment for people with severe mental illness.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64:391–399, 1996
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Drake  RE;  McHugo  GJ;  Bebout  RR  et al:  A randomized clinical trial of supported employment for inner-city patients with severe mental disorders.  Archives of General Psychiatry 56:627–633, 1999
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Frey WD, Drake RE, Bond GR, et al: Mental Health Treatment Study: Final Report to the Social Security Administration. Rockville, Md, Westat, 2011. Available at www.socialsecurity.gov/disabilityresearch/documents/MHTS_Final_Report_508.pdf. Accessed Aug 6, 2013
 
Gold  PB;  Meisler  N;  Santos  AB  et al:  Randomized trial of supported employment integrated with assertive community treatment for rural adults with severe mental illness.  Schizophrenia Bulletin 32:378–395, 2006
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Heslin  M;  Howard  L;  Leese  M  et al:  Randomized controlled trial of supported employment in England: 2 year follow-up of the Supported Work and Needs (SWAN) study.  World Psychiatry 10:132–137, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Hoffmann  H;  Jäckel  D;  Glauser  S  et al:  A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of supported employment.  Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 125:157–167, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Killackey  E;  Jackson  HJ;  McGorry  PD:  Vocational intervention in first-episode psychosis: individual placement and support v treatment as usual. British Journal of Psychiatry.  Journal of Mental Science 193:114–120, 2008
 
Latimer  EA;  Lecomte  T;  Becker  DR  et al:  Generalisability of the individual placement and support model of supported employment: results of a Canadian randomised controlled trial.  British Journal of Psychiatry 189:65–73, 2006
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Lehman  AF;  Goldberg  R;  Dixon  LB  et al:  Improving employment outcomes for persons with severe mental illnesses.  Archives of General Psychiatry 59:165–172, 2002
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Michon HW, vanVugh M, van Busschbach J: Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support: 18–30 Months Follow Up. Presented at the Enmesh Conference, Ulm, Germany, June 23–25, 2011
 
Mueser  KT;  Clark  RE;  Haines  M  et al:  The Hartford study of supported employment for persons with severe mental illness.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:479–490, 2004
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Nuechterlein KH, Subotnik KL, Turner L, et al: Individual Placement and Support After an Initial Episode of Schizophrenia: Impact on School or Work Recovery, Hospitalization and Utilization of Disability Support. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Early Psychosis: From Neurobiology to Public Policy, San Francisco, Oct 11–13, 2012
 
Twamley  EW;  Narvaez  JM;  Becker  DR  et al:  Supported employment for middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia.  American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation 11:76–89, 2008
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kin Wong  K;  Chiu  R;  Tang  B  et al:  A randomized controlled trial of a supported employment program for persons with long-term mental illness in Hong Kong.  Psychiatric Services 59:84–90, 2008
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Cook  JA;  Leff  HS;  Blyler  CR  et al:  Results of a multisite randomized trial of supported employment interventions for individuals with severe mental illness.  Archives of General Psychiatry 62:505–512, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Drake  RE;  Frey  W;  Bond  GR  et al:  Assisting Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression in returning to work.  American Journal of Psychiatry  (Epub ahead of print, Aug 9, 2013)
 
Salyers  MP;  Becker  DR;  Drake  RE  et al:  A ten-year follow-up of a supported employment program.  Psychiatric Services 55:302–308, 2004
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McHugo  GJ;  Drake  RE;  Becker  DR:  The durability of supported employment effects.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 22:55–61, 1998
[CrossRef]
 
Bond  GR;  Dietzen  LL;  McGrew  JH  et al:  Accelerating entry into supported employment for persons with severe psychiatric disabilities.  Rehabilitation Psychology 40:75–94, 1995
[CrossRef]
 
Becker  DR;  Whitley  R;  Bailey  EL  et al:  Long-term employment trajectories among participants with severe mental illness in supported employment.  Psychiatric Services 58:922–928, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kukla  M;  Bond  GR:  A randomized controlled trial of evidence-based supported employment: nonvocational outcomes.  Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 38:91–98, 2013
 
Burns  T;  Catty  J;  White  S  et al:  The impact of supported employment and working on clinical and social functioning: results of an international study of individual placement and support.  Schizophrenia Bulletin 35:949–958, 2009
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Bond  GR;  Resnick  SG;  Drake  RE  et al:  Does competitive employment improve nonvocational outcomes for people with severe mental illness? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 69:489–501, 2001
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kukla  M;  Bond  GR;  Xie  H:  A prospective investigation of work and nonvocational outcomes in adults with severe mental illness.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 200:214–222, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Mueser  KT;  Becker  DR;  Torrey  WC  et al:  Work and nonvocational domains of functioning in persons with severe mental illness: a longitudinal analysis.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 185:419–426, 1997
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Cook  JA;  Blyler  CR;  Leff  HS  et al:  The employment intervention demonstration program: major findings and policy implications.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 31:291–295, 2008
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Cook  JA;  Lehman  AF;  Drake  R  et al:  Integration of psychiatric and vocational services: a multisite randomized, controlled trial of supported employment.  American Journal of Psychiatry 162:1948–1956, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Bond  GR;  Kukla  M:  Impact of follow-along support on job tenure in the individual placement and support model.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 199:150–155, 2011
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Leff  HS;  Cook  JA;  Gold  PB  et al:  Effects of job development and job support on competitive employment of persons with severe mental illness.  Psychiatric Services 56:1237–1244, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Campbell  K;  Bond  GR;  Drake  RE  et al:  Client predictors of employment outcomes in high-fidelity supported employment: a regression analysis.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 198:556–563, 2010
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Mueser  KT;  Campbell  K;  Drake  RE:  The effectiveness of supported employment in people with dual disorders.  Journal of Dual Diagnosis 7:90–102, 2011
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Cook  JA;  Razzano  LA;  Burke-Miller  JK  et al:  Effects of co-occurring disorders on employment outcomes in a multisite randomized study of supported employment for people with severe mental illness.  Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 44:837–849, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Haslett  WR;  Drake  RE;  Bond  GR  et al:  Individual placement and support: does rurality matter? American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation 14:237–244, 2011
[CrossRef]
 
Baksheev  GN;  Allott  K;  Jackson  HJ  et al:  Predictors of vocational recovery among young people with first-episode psychosis: findings from a randomized controlled trial.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 35:421–427, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Twamley  EW;  Vella  L;  Burton  CZ  et al:  The efficacy of supported employment for middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia.  Schizophrenia Research 135:100–104, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Burke-Miller  JK;  Cook  JA;  Grey  DD  et al:  Demographic characteristics and employment among people with severe mental illness in a multisite study.  Community Mental Health Journal 42:143–159, 2006
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Razzano  LA;  Cook  JA;  Burke-Miller  JK  et al:  Clinical factors associated with employment among people with severe mental illness: findings from the employment intervention demonstration program.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 193:705–713, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Burke-Miller  J;  Razzano  LA;  Grey  DD  et al:  Supported employment outcomes for transition age youth and young adults.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 35:171–179, 2012
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kaufmann  CL:  The Self Help Employment Center: some outcomes from the first year.  Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 18:145–162, 1995
[CrossRef]
 
Kern  RS;  Zarate  R;  Glynn  SM  et al:  A demonstration project involving peers as providers of evidence-based, supported employment services.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 36:99–107, 2013
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Swarbrick  M;  Bates  F;  Roberts  M:  Peer Employment Support (PES): a model created through collaboration between a peer-operated service and university.  Occupational Therapy in Mental Health 25:325–334, 2009
[CrossRef]
 
McGurk  SR;  Mueser  KT;  Feldman  K  et al:  Cognitive training for supported employment: 2–3 year outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.  American Journal of Psychiatry 164:437–441, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McGurk  SR;  Mueser  KT;  Pascaris  A:  Cognitive training and supported employment for persons with severe mental illness: one-year results from a randomized controlled trial.  Schizophrenia Bulletin 31:898–909, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Mueser  KT;  Aalto  S;  Becker  DR  et al:  The effectiveness of skills training for improving outcomes in supported employment.  Psychiatric Services 56:1254–1260, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Vauth  R;  Corrigan  PW;  Clauss  M  et al:  Cognitive strategies versus self-management skills as adjunct to vocational rehabilitation.  Schizophrenia Bulletin 31:55–66, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
References Container
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