0
Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

Articles   |    
Effectiveness of Criminal Justice Liaison and Diversion Services for Offenders With Mental Disorders: A Review
David A. Scott, Ph.D.; Sinead McGilloway, Ph.D.; Martin Dempster, Ph.D.; Fred Browne, B.Sc., F.R.C.Psych.; Michael Donnelly, Ph.D.
Psychiatric Services 2013; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201200144
View Author and Article Information

Dr. Scott is with the Centre for Public Health, Dr. Dempster is with the School of Psychology, and Dr. Donnelly is with the Centre for Excellence in Public Health, all at the Queen's University, Belfast, United Kingdom. Dr. McGilloway is with the Department of Psychology, National University Ireland, Dublin, Ireland. Dr. Browne is with Medical Associates, Belfast, United Kingdom. Send correspondence to Dr. Scott at ICS-B, Grosvenor Rd., Belfast BT12 6BJ, United Kingdom (e-mail: david.scott@qub.ac.uk).

Copyright © 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association

Abstract

Objective  The authors reviewed studies of the effectiveness of criminal justice liaison and diversion (CJLD) services in which outcomes of participants in these services were compared with those of offenders with mental illness who received no intervention or a standard intervention. The authors synthesized existing evidence with respect to changes in mental health status or criminal recidivism.

Methods  A comprehensive search (1980–2012) of more than 30 generic and specialist databases identified 6,571 published and unpublished studies. The studies, which varied considerably in methodological approach and overall quality, were systematically appraised according to Campbell-Cochrane guidelines. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Key outcomes included a reduction in offending and postintervention changes in mental health.

Results  Synthesized findings indicated that CJLD services appeared to be effective in identifying offenders with mental disorders and that participation in CJLD services had a positive impact on criminal justice and mental health outcomes.

Conclusions  Although the methodologies of existing studies are only moderately rigorous, the overall findings suggest that CJLD services can be beneficial. Their effectiveness depends on the model of service delivery, the availability of community services, and the engagement of offenders with mental disorders in treatment. The successful implementation of CJLD services requires a clearer recognition of the importance of systems-of-care principles.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Anchor for Jump
Table 1Studies of mental health courts (MHCs) with and without assertive community treatment (ACT)
Anchor for Jump
Table 2Studies of diversion services
+

References

Bradley  K:  The Bradley Report: Lord Bradley’s Review of People With Mental Health Problems or Learning Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System .  London,  Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 2009
 
Parsonage  M;  Khanoum  H;  Rutherford  M  et al:  Diversion: A Better Way for Criminal Justice and Mental Health .  London,  Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, 2009
 
Birmingham  L:  Diversion from custody.  Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 7:198–207, 2001
[CrossRef]
 
Petrila  J:  Diversion from the criminal justice system.  Behavioral Sciences and the Law 23:161–162, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Fazel  S;  Danesh  J:  Serious mental disorder in 23,000 prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys.  Lancet 359:545–550, 2002
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Singleton  N;  Meltzer  H;  Gatward  R:  Psychiatric Morbidity Among Prisoners in England and Wales .  London,  Office for National Statistics, 1998
 
Redlich  A;  Liu  S;  Steadman  H  et al:  Is diversion swift? Comparing mental health court and traditional criminal justice processing.  Criminal Justice and Behavior 39:420–433, 2012
[CrossRef]
 
Goodale  G;  Callahan  L;  Steadman  HJ:  What can we say about mental health courts today? Psychiatric Services 64:298–300, 2013
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
James  DV;  Farnham  F;  Moorey  H  et al:  Outcome of Psychiatric Admission Through the Courts .  London,  Home Office, 2002
 
McGilloway  S;  Donnelly  M:  Mental illness in the UK criminal justice system: a police liaison scheme for mentally disordered offenders in Belfast.  Journal of Mental Health 13:263–275, 2004
[CrossRef]
 
 Provision for Mentally Disordered Offenders . Circular 66/90.  London,  Home Office, 1990
 
Reed  J:  Review of Health and Social Services for Mentally Disordered Offenders and Others Requiring Similar Services .  London,  Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1992
 
Steadman  HJ;  Scott  JE;  Osher  F  et al:  Validation of the Brief Jail Mental Health Screen.  Psychiatric Services 56:816–822, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Belenko S: Research on Drug Courts: A Critical Review: 2001 Update. New York, National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2001
 
Appraising the Evidence. Oxford, United Kingdom, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Available at www.casp-uk.net/find-appraise-act/appraising-the-evidence
 
Systematic Reviews: CRD’s Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. York, United Kingdom, University of York, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, 2009. Available at www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/pdf/Systematic_Reviews.pdf
 
Pettigrew  M;  Roberts  H:  Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide .  Oxford,  Blackwell, 2006
 
Cosden  M;  Ellens  JK;  Schnell  JL  et al:  Evaluation of a mental health treatment court with assertive community treatment.  Behavioral Sciences and the Law 21:415–427, 2003
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Cosden  M;  Ellens  J;  Schnell  J  et al:  Efficacy of a mental health treatment court with assertive community treatment.  Behavioral Sciences and the Law 23:199–214, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Boothroyd  RA;  Poythress  NG;  McGaha  A  et al:  The Broward Mental Health Court: process, outcomes, and service utilization.  International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 26:55–71, 2003
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Boothroyd  RA;  Mercado  CC;  Poythress  NG  et al:  Clinical outcomes of defendants in mental health court.  Psychiatric Services 56:829–834, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Christy  A;  Poythress  NG;  Boothroyd  RA  et al:  Evaluating the efficiency and community safety goals of the Broward County Mental Health Court.  Behavioral Sciences and the Law 23:227–243, 2005
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Steadman  HJ;  Redlich  A;  Callahan  L  et al:  Effect of mental health courts on arrests and jail days: a multisite study.  Archives of General Psychiatry 68:167–172, 2011
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McNiel  DE;  Binder  RL:  Effectiveness of a mental health court in reducing criminal recidivism and violence.  American Journal of Psychiatry 164:1395–1403, 2007
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Moore  ME;  Hiday  VA:  Mental health court outcomes: a comparison of re-arrest and re-arrest severity between mental health court and traditional court participants.  Law and Human Behavior 30:659–674, 2006
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Broner  N;  Lattimore  PK;  Cowell  AJ  et al:  Effects of diversion on adults with co-occurring mental illness and substance use: outcomes from a national multi-site study.  Behavioral Sciences and the Law 22:519–541, 2004
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Hoff  RA;  Baranosky  MV;  Buchanan  J  et al:  The effects of a jail diversion program on incarceration: a retrospective cohort study.  Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 27:377–386, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Wilson  S:  The principle of equivalence and the future of mental health care in prisons.  British Journal of Psychiatry 184:5–7, 2004
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
The Bamford Review of Mental Health and Learning Disability (Northern Ireland) Forensic Services. Belfast, United Kingdom, Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, 2007
 
Birmingham  L;  Wilson  S;  Adshead  G:  Prison medicine: ethics and equivalence.  British Journal of Psychiatry 188:4–6, 2006
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Review Into the Current Practice of Court Liaison and Diversion Schemes. London, Centre for Public innovations, 2005
 
References Container
+
+

CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 33.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 38.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 5.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 33.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 65.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles