Not content with doctoral degrees in pharmacy (1863) or medicine (1864) from American institutions, she became the first woman to graduate from the École de Médecine in Paris in 1871. Upon her return to New York, she began practicing medicine, teaching at Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell's Woman's Medical College of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children. Through her scientific publications and active participation, she successfully won admission to the elite medical societies of her time. Soon after her return to New York, too, she met and married the noted pediatrician and political progressive Abraham Jacobi, with whom she had three children. Finally, Putnam Jacobi became a forceful voice for women's suffrage and women's higher education. For example, her famous essay “On the Question of Rest for Women During Menstruation” of 1876, which was awarded Harvard's Boylston Prize, described her taking a long series of pulse readings to demonstrate that women were not weakened during menstruation. Thus, contrary to Dr. Edward Clarke of Harvard, female physiology did not justify lesser opportunities for education, suffrage, or employment. Bittel has woven these strands together into a fascinating volume.