As early as 2007 two large retrospective studies found evidence of major shortcomings in the effectiveness of current predeployment mental health screening processes. In one study nearly half of deployed military personnel with documented mental health encounters in the year before deployment had failed to report such care on the standardized predeployment screening form (2). This instrument, still in use today and unmodified since its introduction in 1999, contains only one mental health-related question. The study also found that of 11,179 cohort members who had undergone predeployment mental health screening, only 31 (.2%) received a mental health referral. A related analysis found widespread predeployment misprescribing of mefloquine, an antimalarial agent—a germane finding in that this drug is specifically contraindicated and prohibited by policy for use among persons with mental disorders (3). Nearly one in seven military personnel with documented neuropsychiatric contraindications were nonetheless issued the drug—clear evidence that health care providers were unaware of pertinent details of mental health history at the time of prescribing.