Depression is a private nightmare and a pervasive public health problem. Working-age adults with depression experience higher than average rates of job loss, job turnover, premature retirement, work absences, and impaired work performance. The costs to depressed adults and their families, their employers, and the nation reach into the billions of dollars annually. As two reports in this issue make clear, there is an urgent need for research to find solutions to the employment problems of our returning veterans who suffer from mental disorders, including major depression. Current economic conditions may only worsen the employment picture for this already vulnerable group.