Untreated mental health and substance abuse problems among soldiers returning from Iran and Afghanistan can lead to casualties for these individuals and their families. Three studies in this issue focused on cohorts of returning veterans. Patcho N. Santiago, M.D., M.P.H., and colleagues worked with data from a military health screening conducted for all returnees three to six months postdeployment. The assessment includes two questions to detect alcohol misuse, but because referral to alcohol treatment after positive responses was very low (<1%), officials wondered whether the questions measured alcohol misuse or other, less worrisome factors, such as prosocial use associated with support seeking from other veterans. The study demonstrated the questions' utility by uncovering strong associations between positive responses and high-risk drinking behaviors reported by 6,527 veterans in an anonymous survey (page 575). In another study with an anonymous survey, 10,386 active duty or National Guard soldiers reported on use of mental health care, stigma, and barriers at three and 12 months after returning from Iraq. At both time points, Paul Y. Kim, M.A., and colleagues found that about 45% of active duty soldiers reported a mental health problem, compared with about 35% of National Guard soldiers. However, service use was twice as high among the latter group (27% versus 13%), which may have resulted from significantly stronger endorsement of stigma and barriers among active duty soldiers (page 582). Nina A. Sayer, Ph.D., and colleagues explored community reintegration problems in a national sample of 754 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. From 25% to 56% reported difficulty in a range of areas, such as social functioning and self-care, and at least a third reported divorce, dangerous driving, increased substance use, and anger control problems. Almost all (96%) expressed an interest in services to help readjust to civilian life (page 589). Combat veterans were represented in the sample of 463 adults with posttraumatic stress disorder studied by Stefan Priebe, F.R.C.Psych., Dr.Med.Habil., and colleagues, who evaluated outcomes at specialized treatment centers established after the war in former Yugoslavia. The authors found low rates of recovery and little improvement (page 598).